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  1. Boundless Lecture Slides Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  2. Using Boundless Presentations Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: • The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. http://boundless.com/teaching-platform • Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. If you have any questions or problems please email: educators@boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  3. About Boundless • Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  4. Introduction to Skeletal Muscle Muscular System Smooth Muscle Control of Muscle Tension Muscle Metabolism ] Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue Muscular System Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  5. Overview of the Muscular System Muscular System(continued) Head and Neck Muscles Trunk Muscles Muscles of the Upper Limb ] Muscles of the Lower Limb Muscular System Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  6. Muscular System > Introduction to Skeletal Muscle Introduction to Skeletal Muscle • Structure and Function of the Muscular System • Slow-Twitch and Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers • Sliding Filament Model of Contraction • ATP and Muscle Contraction • Control of Muscle Tension Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/introduction-to-skeletal-muscle-96/

  7. Muscular System > Smooth Muscle Smooth Muscle • Skeletal Muscle Fibers Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/smooth-muscle-100/

  8. Muscular System > Control of Muscle Tension Control of Muscle Tension • Force of Muscle Contraction • Velocity and Duration of Muscle Contraction • Motor Units • Muscle Tone • Types of Muscle Contractions: Isotonic and Isometric Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/control-of-muscle-tension-97/

  9. Muscular System > Muscle Metabolism Muscle Metabolism • Muscle Metabolism • Muscle Fatigue Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/muscle-metabolism-98/

  10. Muscular System > Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue • Impacts of Exercise on Muscles Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/exercise-and-skeletal-muscle-tissue-99/

  11. Muscular System > Overview of the Muscular System Overview of the Muscular System • Interactions of Skeletal Muscles • How Skeletal Muscles Are Named • How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements • Muscle Attachment Sites • Arrangement of Fascicles • Lever Systems Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/overview-of-the-muscular-system-103/

  12. Muscular System > Head and Neck Muscles Head and Neck Muscles • Facial Muscles • Chewing Muscles • Neck Muscles Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/head-and-neck-muscles-104/

  13. Muscular System > Trunk Muscles Trunk Muscles • Anterior Muscles • Posterior Muscles Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/trunk-muscles-105/

  14. Muscular System > Muscles of the Upper Limb Muscles of the Upper Limb • Muscles of the Humerus that Act on the Forearm • Muscles of the Wrist and Hand • Muscles of the Shoulder Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/muscles-of-the-upper-limb-106/

  15. Muscular System > Muscles of the Lower Limb Muscles of the Lower Limb • Muscles that Cause Movement at the Hip Joint • Muscles that Cause Movement at the Knee Joint • Muscles that Cause Movement at the Ankle • Muscles that Cause Movement at the Foot Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/muscular-system-10/muscles-of-the-lower-limb-107/

  16. Appendix Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  17. Muscular System Key terms • A-bandThe length of a myosin myofilament within a sarcomere. • abdominal wallA layer of muscle and fascia which protects and encloses the abdominal cavity, allowing for its compression as well as torso movement. • abductionMovement away from the midline of the body. • actinA protein which forms myofilaments that interact with myosin filaments to generate tension. • adductionMovement towards the midline of the body. • adductor groupThe adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, pectineus, and gracilis. • aerobicA combination of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, an efficient but slow way of producing ATP. • agonistThese muscles are typically associates with the movement itself, and are sometimes referred to as prime movers. They contract while another muscle relaxes. • anaerobicGlycolysis alone, an inefficient but quick way of producing ATP with pyruvate converted to lactate. • antagonistThis type of muscle acts as opposing muscle to agonists, usually contracting as a means of returning the limb to its original resting position. • aponeurosesA tough flat sheet of fibrous tissue that connects muscle with bones or with the fascia of other muscles. • ATPThe molecule containing high-energy bonds used to transfer energy between systems within a cell. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  18. Muscular System • ATPasea class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion, releasing energy that is often harnessed to drive other chemical reactions • BicepsBrachiiA muscle of the anterior compartment of the upper arm that flexes the forearm. • BrachioradialisA muscle of the posterior compartment of the forearm that flexes the forearm. • BuccinatorThis muscle is located between the upper and lower jaws in the cheek, deep to the other muscles of the face. • CircularA ring like band of muscle that surrounds a bodily opening, constricting and relaxing to control flow. • concentricAn isotonic contraction where the muscle shortens. • ConvergentA muscle with a common point of attachment, although individual fascicles do not necessarily run parallel to each other. • CorrugatorSuperciliiA small muscle located superiorly to the orbicularis oculi. • deltoidThe deltoid muscle, a triangular muscle on the human shoulder. • depressoranguli orisThis muscle is opposite to the levator anguli oris and pulls the corners of the mouth downward, producing a frown. • depressor labii inferiorisAn analogous muscle that lowers the bottom lipEndFragment • diaphragmThe key muscle in the control of respiration. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  19. Muscular System • dorsalThe top surface of foot. • dorsiflexionMovement of the foot upwards towards the lower leg. • eccentricAn isotonic contraction where the muscle lengthens. • endomysiumA sheet of connective tissue which wraps each fascicle. • epimysiumA sheet of connective tissue lying below the fascia, also surrounding a muscle. • eversionTilting of the foot so the sole faces away from the midline. • extensionIncreases the angle between two body parts. • fasciaA sheet of thick connective tissue which surrounds a muscle. • fascicleA group of muscle of fibers surrounded by the perimysium. • fast-twitchType II fibers which are characterized by fast muscle contractions of short duration. • first class leverForce and load to either side of the pivot. • flexionReduces the angle between two body parts. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  20. Muscular System • FlexorCarpi RadialisA long muscle originating near the elbow and passing through into the wrist, attaching to the base of the digits (fingers). • FlexorCarpi UlnarisA long muscle originating near the elbow and passing through into the wrist, attaching to one of the carpal bones in the wrist. • FlexorDigitorum ProfundusA long muscle originating near the elbow and passing through into the wrist, flexing the wrist and the most distant regions of the fingers. • FlexorDigitorum SuperficialisA key muscle controlling wrist and finger flex. • FlexorPollicis LongusA long, deep muscle responsible for flexing the thumb. • forceAny influence that causes an object to undergo a certain change concerning its movement, direction, or geometrical construction. • Force-Length RelationshipThe relationship between sarcomere length and force produced in the muscle, modulated by actin and myosin myofilament overlap. • Force-Velocity RelationshipThe relationship between the speed and force of muscle contraction, outputted as power. • Force-Velocity RelationshipThe relationship between the speed and force of muscle contraction, outputted as power. • gluteal groupThe gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae. • glycolysisThe breakdown of glucose (or other carbohydrates) by enzymes, generating ATP and pyruvate. • golgi tendon organA sensory unit associated with a tendon that is responsible for preventing damage to the associated muscle. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  21. Muscular System • H-bandThe area adjacent to the M-line, where myosin myofilaments are not superimposed by actin myofilaments. • hamstring groupA group of three muscles found in the posterior region of the thigh, responsible for flexing of the lower leg at the knee. • hyoid boneA -shaped bone which sits below the mandible and in front of the esophagus, facilitating the wide range of movements associated with speaking and swallowing. • I-bandThe area adjacent to the Z-line, where actin myofilaments are not superimposed by myosin myofilaments. • iliopsoas groupThe iliacus and psoas major. • infrahyoid musclesA group of muscles located below the hyoid bone, responsible for its depression which narrows the esophagus. • insertionThe movable point of attachment for a muscle. • intercostalMuscles forming the chest wall, which aid in respiration. • inversionTilting of the foot so the sole faces into the midline. • involuntaryA muscle movement not under conscious control (e.g. the beating of the heart). • IsometricA muscular contraction in which the length of the muscle does not change. • isotonicA muscular contraction in which the length of the muscle changes. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  22. Muscular System • Krebs cycleA sequence of reactions which converts pyruvate into carbon dioxide and water, generating further adenosine triphosphate (ATP). • Lactic AcidA byproduct of anaerobic respiration which strongly contributes to muscle fatigue. • lateral pterygoidA muscle of mastication with two heads. It lies superiorly to the medial pterygoid. • lateral rotator groupThe externus and internus obturators, the piriformis, the superior and inferior gemelli, and the quadratus femoris. • levatorlabii superioriAbroad muscle responsible for elevation of the upper lip. • levatorlabii superioris alaeque nasiThe muscle of the upper lip. It acts to lift the upper lift and dilates nostril, producing a snarling expression. • linea albaA tough, fibrous line running down the midline of the abdomen, formed from the aponeuroses of the abdominal muscles. • M-linethe disc in the middle of the sarcomere, inside the H-zone • M-lineThe line at the center of a sarcomere to which myosin myofilaments bind. • masseterThe large muscle which raises the lower jaw, and assists in mastication. • medial pterygoidA muscle of mastication with two heads. It lies inferiorly to the medial pterygoid. • mentalisThis muscle pushes the lower lip uppers and wrinkles the chin. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  23. Muscular System • micro-traumaThe damage to muscle fibers that occurs during excessive eccentric contraction. • Motor PoolA collection of motor units. • Motor UnitA grouping of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers innervated by it. • muscle hypertrophyIncrease in muscle mass due to exercise, particularly weight training; a noticeable long-term effect of exercise. • muscle spindleA sensory unit associated with muscle tissue that is responsible for maintaining muscle tone. • muscle toneThe continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, which helps maintain posture. • myocyteA muscle cell. • myofibrilA fiber made up of several myofilaments that facilitates the generation of tension in a myocyte. • myofilamentA filament composed of either multiple myosin or actin proteins that slide over each other to generate tension. • myosinA motor protein which forms myofilaments that interact with actin filaments to generate tension. • NasalisThe largest of the nasal muscles. It is split into two sections: alar and transverse. • OrbicularisOculiA thin muscle that surrounds the eye socket. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  24. Muscular System • OrbicularisOrisMuscle fibers that enclose the opening to the oral cavity. • originThe relatively immovable point of attachment for a muscle. • PalmarisLongusA long muscle originating near the elbow and passing through into the wrist, attaching to the base of the hand. • ParallelA muscle with a common point of attachment, with fascicles running parallel to each other. • pectoralis majorA large, fan-shaped muscle of the chest. • PennateA feather shaped muscle with fascicles that attach obliquely (at an angle) to a central tendon. • perimysiumThe continuation of the epimysium into the muscle, splitting fibers into fascicles. • phosphocreatineA phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle. • plantarThe sole of the foot. • plantarflexionMovement of the foot downwards away from the lower leg. • popliteusA muscles located behind the knee which "unlocks" the fully extended knee joint allowing for flexion. • powerA measure of force x velocity, a measurable output for muscle contraction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  25. Muscular System • ProcerusThe most superior of all facial muscles. • PronatorQuadratursA muscle of the anterior compartment of the forearm that controls pronation. • PronatorquadratusA square-shaped muscle located adjacent to the wrist. • PronatorTeresA muscle of the anterior compartment of the forearm that controls pronation. • PronatorTeresA rectangular muscle that pronates the forearm. • quadriceps femorisA group of four muscles found in the anterior region of the thigh, responsible for extension of the lower leg at the knee. • resting lengthOften the ideal length of a muscle and the length at which it can create the greatest active force. • risoriusThis muscle pulls the mouth back mimicking a smile, but does not affect the skin around the smile. • rotationThe act of turning around a centre or an axis. • rotator cuffA set of four smaller muscles in the shoulder responsible for rotating the humerus (upper arm bone). • sarcolemmaThe cell membrane of a myocyte. • sarcomereThe functional contractile unit of the myofibril of a striated muscle. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  26. Muscular System • sarcoplasmThe cytoplasm of a myocyte. • sarcoplasmic reticulumThe equivalent of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a myocyte. • second-class leverLoad between force and pivot. • slow-twitchType I fibers characterized as muscles with long contraction duration, associated with endurance. • striatedThe striped appearance of certain muscle types in which myofibrils are aligned to produce a constant directional tension. • summationThe occurrence of additional twitch contractions before the previous twitch has completely relaxed. • summation.The occurrence of another twitch contraction before complete relaxation of the prior twitch has occurred. • SupinatorA muscle of the posterior compartment of the forearm that controls supination. • suprahyoid musclesA group of muscles located above the hyoid bone, responsible for its elevation which widens the esophagus. • synergistThis type of muscle acts around a movable joint to produce motion similar to or in concert with agonist muscles. • temporalisA broad muscle that fans out to cover much of the temporal bone on the side of the skull. • tendonA tough band of fibrous tissue that usually connects a muscle with a bone. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  27. Muscular System • tensioncondition of being held in a state between two or more forces, which are acting in opposition to each other • tetanicA longer contraction of a muscle which reaches peak force. • tetanusWhen the frequency of muscle contraction is such that the maximal force is tension is generated without any relaxation of the muscle. • third-class leverForce between pivot and load. • trapeziusA large vertebrate skeletal muscle divided into an ascending, descending, and transverse portion, attaching the neck and central spine to the outer extremity of the scapula. It functions in scapular elevation, adduction, and depression. • TricepsBrachiiA muscle of the posterior compartment of the upper arm that extends the forearm. • troponina complex of three regulatory proteins that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal and cardiac muscle, or any member of this complex • twitchA short contraction of a muscle which does not reach peak force. • twitchThe period of contraction and relaxation of a muscle after a single stimulation. • voluntaryA muscle movement under conscious control (e.g. deciding to move the forearm). • Z-lineNeighbouring, parallel lines that define a sarcomere. • zygomaticThis muscle controls the cheeks to create smiles and frowns. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  28. Muscular System Location of the masseter muscle The masseter muscle spans the opening of the mouth. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Gray1024."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gray1024.pngView on Boundless.com

  29. Muscular System Cross-bridge muscle contraction cycle The cross-bridge muscle contraction cycle, which is triggered by Ca2+ binding to the actin active site, is shown. With each contraction cycle, actin moves relative to myosin. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Muscle Contraction and Locomotion. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44788/latest/Figure_38_04_05.pngView on Boundless.com

  30. Muscular System Location of the external obliques Highlighted in orange, the external obliques lie inferior to the pectoral muscles Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Gray392."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gray392.pngView on Boundless.com

  31. Muscular System Muscles of the hand Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Anatomy of the Human Body."image427.gif."Public domainhttp://www.bartleby.com/107/illus427.htmlView on Boundless.com

  32. Muscular System Muscle tension Muscle tension is produced when the maximum amount of cross-bridges are formed, either within a muscle with a large diameter or when the maximum number of muscle fibers are stimulated. Muscle tone is residual muscle tension that resists passive stretching during the resting phase. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia."Skeletal muscle."CC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Skeletal_muscle.jpgView on Boundless.com

  33. Muscular System Muscles of the back and neck Muscles of the back and neck play an important role in maintaining posture and the movement of the head and neck. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Anatomy of the Human Body."image389.gif."Public domainhttp://www.bartleby.com/107/illus389.htmlView on Boundless.com

  34. Muscular System Suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles of the neck Suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle groups are named based on their location relative to the hyoid bone. The hyoid bone sits below the mandible and in front of the esophagus, providing a level of protection but also facilitating the wide range of muscle activity required for speaking and swallowing. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Anatomy of the Human Body."image386.gif."Public domainhttp://www.bartleby.com/107/illus386.htmlView on Boundless.com

  35. Muscular System Intercostal muscles of the anterior trunk Deep muscles of the chest and front of the arm, with the boundaries of the axilla. The intercostals are muscles between the ribs that form the chest cavity wall. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Gray411."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gray411.pngView on Boundless.com

  36. Muscular System Location of the multifidus muscle Highlighted in orange, the multifidus muscle is a muscle of the posterior trunk and lies interior to a majority of muscles Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Multifidi."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Multifidi.pngView on Boundless.com

  37. Muscular System Location of the splenius muscle. The splenius capitis is highlighted in orange, with the splenius cervicis directly below Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Musculus splenius capitis marked."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Musculus_splenius_capitis_marked.pngView on Boundless.com

  38. Muscular System Muscles and tendons of the forearm and hand The extrinsic muscles of the forearm are responsible for movement of the wrist and fingers. Often providing the more forceful movements required. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Anatomy of the Human Body."image415.gif."Public domainhttp://www.bartleby.com/107/illus415.htmlView on Boundless.com

  39. Muscular System Types of muscle The body contains three types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle, visualized here using light microscopy. Visible striations in skeletal and cardiac muscle are visible, differentiating them from the more randomised appearance of smooth muscle. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Biology. December 5, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44788/latest/?collection=col11448/latestView on Boundless.com

  40. Muscular System The muscular system Skeletal muscle of the muscular system is closely associated with the skeletal system and acts to maintain posture and control voluntary movement. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Bougle_whole2_retouched.png."Public domainhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABougle_whole2_retouched.pngView on Boundless.com

  41. Muscular System The sarcomere and the sliding filament model of contraction During contraction myosin ratchets along actin myofilaments compressing the I and H bands. During stretching this tension is release and the I and H bands expand. The A-band remains constant throughout as the length of the myosin myofilaments does not change. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia - Adapted From."Sarcomere.png."GNU FDL 1.2https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sarcomere.svgView on Boundless.com

  42. Muscular System Myocyte: Skeletal muscle cell A skeletal muscle cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane called the sarcolemma with a cytoplasm called the sarcoplasm. A muscle fiber is composed of many myofibrils, packaged into orderly units. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Muscle Contraction and Locomotion. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44788/latest/Figure_38_04_02.jpgView on Boundless.com

  43. Muscular System Sarcomere The sarcomere is the functional contractile region of the myocyte, and defines the region of interaction between a set of thick and thin filaments. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Muscle Contraction and Locomotion. October 17, 2013."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44788/latest/Figure_38_04_03.jpgView on Boundless.com

  44. Muscular System Force-Velocity Relationship As velocity increases force and power produced is reduced. Although force increases due to stretching with no velocity, zero power is produced. Maximum power is generated at one-third of maximum shortening velocity. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Force-Velocity Relationship."Public domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Muscle_Force_Velocity_relationship.pngView on Boundless.com

  45. Muscular System The Ideal Length of a Sarcomere Sarcomeres produce maximal tension when thick and thin filaments overlap between about 80 percent to 120 percent, approximately 1.6 to 2.6 micrometers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com OpenStax CNX."OpenStax College, Anatomy & Physiology. January 20, 2014."CC BYhttp://openstaxcollege.org/files/textbook_version/hi_res_pdf/13/col11496-op.pdfView on Boundless.com

  46. Muscular System Force-Velocity Relationship As velocity increases force and therefore power produced is reduced. Although force increases due to stretching with no velocity, zero power is produced. Maximum power is generated at one-third of maximum shortening velocity. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Muscle_Force_Velocity_relationship.png."Public domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Muscle_Force_Velocity_relationship.pngView on Boundless.com

  47. Muscular System Sliding Filament Model of Contraction Muscle fibers in relaxed and contracted positions. Muscle tone ensures that even when at rest the muscle is at least partially contracted. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Sarcomere."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sarcomere.svgView on Boundless.com

  48. Muscular System Muscle Structure Skeletal muscle is surrounded by a thick outer layer of connective tissue termed the fascia. Within this is a layer termed the epimysium which splits inwards into the muscle as the perimysium dividing muscle fibers into groups termed fascicle. Each fascicle is surrounded by another layer of connective tissue termed the endomysium. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com CNX."Muscle Structure."CC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/contents/14fb4ad7-39a1-4eee-ab6e-3ef2482e3e22@6.27.View on Boundless.com

  49. Muscular System Types of Muscle Contraction An isotonic concentric contraction results in the muscle shortening, an isotonic eccentric contraction results in the muscle lengthening. During an isometric contraction the muscle is under tension but neither shortens nor lengthens. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."1015_Types_of_Contraction_new.jpg."CC BY 3.0https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1015_Types_of_Contraction_new.jpgView on Boundless.com

  50. Muscular System Types of muscle in the body The four types of muscle; parallel (fusiform and non-fusiform), circular, convergent and pennate (uni, bi and multi). Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Fascicle_Muscle_Shapes.jpg."CC BY-SA 3.0https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fascicle_Muscle_Shapes.jpgView on Boundless.com