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Principles of exercise, fitness and health

Principles of exercise, fitness and health

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Principles of exercise, fitness and health

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  1. Principles of exercise, fitness and health Unit 02 A/600/9017

  2. Learning objectives for unit 02 At the end of this unit you will: • understand the effects of exercise on the body • understand the components of fitness • understand how to apply the principles and variables of fitness to an exercise programme • understand the exercise contraindications and key safety guidelines for special populations • understand how to safely monitor exercise intensity • understand the health benefits of physical activity • understand the importance of healthy eating

  3. Aim to give an introduction to the key components for a healthy diet By the end of the session you will be able to: identify the 5 main food groups essential for a healthy diet understand why each food group is important for good health explain how body mass index is calculated describe the national food model This session will focus on Assessment Criteria 7.1 describe the national food model and 7.2 describe key healthy eating advice that underpins a healthy diet Session aim & objectives

  4. Starter activity Individually or in pairs try to list your 10 commandments for Healthy Eating

  5. Healthy eating • The key to a healthy balanced diet is not to ban or omit any foods or food groups but to balance what you eat by consuming a variety of foods from each food group in the right proportions for good health • Eat the right number of calories for how active you are, so that you balance the energy you consume with the energy you use • When we eat and drink, we put energy (calories) into our bodies. Our bodies then use up that energy, and the more physical activity we do, the more energy (calories) we use

  6. Healthy eating – self assessment • Are you a healthy eater? How do you score on your own eating habits? • Take this on-line self assessment to see how well you score • Answer the questions honestly.... • Then try out the BUPA nutrition quiz

  7. What are nutrients? • Food provides a range of different nutrients; some provide energy, whilst others are essential to growth and maintenance of the body • Macro nutrients provide us with the energy and building blocks for growth and maintenance of a healthy body and should be eaten in relatively large quantities • Carbohydrates, protein and fat • Micro nutrients are needed in smaller quantities but are essential to keep us healthy • Vitamins and minerals • Fibre and water are also essential for health, but are not considered to be nutrients

  8. The 5 main food groups Protein • Protein provides the body with roughly 10 to 15% of its dietary energy, and is needed for growth and repair • Protein can be found in both animal and vegetable products • Protein from animal sources contains the full range of essential amino acids needed • Red meats are high in saturated fats and cholesterol and should be eaten in moderation • Fish, poultry and eggs are good sources of protein • Nuts, seeds, beans and other pulses provide the highest levels of vegetable proteins

  9. The 5 main food groups Carbohydrates • This food group is your body's main source of energy and contains bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, noodles, cereals and other starchy carbohydrates • Most carbohydrate rich food come from grains – either refined or wholegrain • Refined grains have had the outer bran coating and inner germ removed • Wholegrains contain all the bran which is a valuable source of fibre • Wholegrains should be eaten in preference to refined carbohydrate rich foods such as white rice, white bread, pastries, biscuits and cakes

  10. The 5 main food groups Fat • Fat is a concentrated source of energy; just 1g provides nine calories - more than double the calories in 1g of protein or carbohydrate • There are 2 main categories of fats - saturated and unsaturated • Saturated fats are generally solid at room temperature and comes from animal products • Lard, butter, cheese • Unsaturated fat is usually liquid at room temperature and generally comes from vegetable sources • sesame, sunflower, soya, olive and rapeseed oil, soft margarine and in foods such as oily fish, including mackerel, sardines, pilchards and salmon • Unsaturated vegetable oils are generally a healthier alternative to saturated fat

  11. The 5 main food groups Milk and dairy products • The foods in this group are important sources of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are particularly rich in calcium, which is essential for healthy bones and teeth • Calcium also regulates muscle contraction (including the heartbeat) and makes sure the blood is clotting normally • Milk is categorised by the amount of fat contained • Whole or full-fat milk contains about 3.5% fat • Semi-skimmed contains about 1.7% fat • Skimmed milk contains 0.1 to 0.3% fat • Milk made from soya, rice, oat and almond milk are suitable calcium rich alternatives for people with lactose intolerance.

  12. The 5 main food groupsFruit and vegetables • Fruit and vegetables are low in energy and packed with vitamins, minerals and fibre, so they're a great source of nutrients and vital for a healthy diet • Fruit and vegetables should form the basis of a healthy diet, with a minimum intake of 5 portions each day • Population studies have shown that people who eat a lot of fruit and vegetables may have a lower risk of chronic disease, such as heart disease and some cancers. • Health benefits can be gained from fresh, canned (in natural juice), frozen, cooked, juiced or dried versions • Potatoes don't count as they're a starchy food

  13. Fibre • Fibre is an important component of a healthy balanced diet. We get fibre from plant-based foods, but it's not something the body can absorb • This means fibre is not a nutrient and contains no calories or vitamins • Fibre helps your digestive system to process food and absorb nutrients and prevent constipation • Fibre can help to lower blood cholesterol. • Fibre makes you feel fuller and so helps to control your appetite. • There are 2 types of fibre: insoluble and soluble • Insoluble fibre contains cellulose and is found in wholegrains, beans and pulses • Soluble fibre contains gum and pectin and is found in fruits an vegetables especially apples, strawberries, pears and citrus fruits

  14. Water • Water makes up about 2/3 of the weight of a healthy body. • We need water for the body to function correctly, so that our blood can carry nutrients around the body and get rid of waste • We lose water all the time, through evaporation when we breathe, sweat and in our urine • If the temperature rises or we do more activity, this increases the amount of water we lose • We should aim to drink up to 2 litres (6 – 8) glasses of water a day • Still water is the best choice, but other options are fruit teas or herbal blends, decaffeinated coffee and water flavoured with fresh fruit juice

  15. Micro nutrients: vitamins & minerals

  16. Group activity: Research task You will be allocated into groups Each group will be given one of the 5 food groups and 2 micro nutrients You have to research your allocated nutrients and present back your findings Your presentation must cover: why that food group/micro-nutrient is important for good health examples of good sources guidance on how much should be eaten and any food to avoid any areas of concern particular guidance for a client training for the London Marathon

  17. National healthy eating model • The eatwell plate was developed by the Government’s Department of Health to encourage all people to eat more healthily • The eatwell plate is based on the 5 food groups: • Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods • Fruit and vegetables • Milk and dairy foods • Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein • Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar

  18. The eatwell plate

  19. The eatwell plate - proportions

  20. The eatwell plate • Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods • Eat plenty, choose wholegrain varieties when you can • Fruit and vegetables • Eat plenty, at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables a day. • Milk and dairy foods • Eat some, choose lower fat alternatives whenever possible or eat higher fat versions infrequently or in smaller amounts • Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein • Eat some, choose lower fat alternatives whenever possible or eat higher fat versions infrequently or in smaller amounts. Aim for at least two portions of fish a week, including a portion of oily fish. • Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar • Eat just a small amount.

  21. Body Mass Index (BMI) • The Body Mass Index (or BMI) is a way of seeing if your weight is appropriate for your height • The actual calculation is your weight (in kilograms) divided by your height (in metres) squared • There are 5 categories

  22. Waist to hip ratio • BMI is a good way to tell if you're a healthy weight, it doesn't tell the whole story • If your BMI is over the healthy range, this means that you're probably carrying extra fat. • Your health could be at greater risk depending on where that fat is stored • Having a large amount of tummy fat (when compared to having fat around the bottom or thighs) makes you more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and heart problems • How to calculate waist-to-hip ratioUsing a tape measure take the following steps: 1) Measure your hips. 2) Measure your waist. 3) Divide the waist number by the hip number. • A ratio of 1.0 or more in men or 0.85 or more in women indicates that too much weight is carried around the middle. • This means an increased risk of diseases that are linked to obesity, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease

  23. Review of learning • Look back at your initial 10 commandments • Do you still agree with your original thoughts • Re-write your new 10 commandments based on information gathered in today’s session

  24. Next session • Before the next session keep a food diary of all the food you eat and make notes of the main nutrients in the food • Keep a selection of the packaging from food products that you eat so we can look at nutritional labelling • Next session we will be looking at dietary sources of the key macro and micro nutrients