Fundamentals of Writing April 7, 2014
Today Doing research on the Internet (adapted from the Purdue Online Writing Lab – OWL) Link: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/558/01/
Argument One of the keystones of university learning - Expressing a point of view & supporting it w/evidence - Involves use of research, critical thinking, & logic A good piece of argumentative writing: - Demonstrates your understanding of material - Demonstrates ability to use or apply the material i.e.) critique, apply it to something else, explain it in a different way.
Argumentative Writing – How to Organizing your ideas – Make an outline Organization type A: Introduction (thesis statement) Pro argument 1 Pro argument 2 Pro argument 3 Counterargument(s) and refutation [2 paragraphs]Conclusion
Argumentative Writing – How to Organizing your ideas – Make an outline Organization type B: Introduction (thesis statement)Counterargument(s) and refutation [2 paragraphs] Pro argument 1 Pro argument 2 Pro argument 3 Conclusion
Argumentative Essay – How to Requires the writer to 1.Investigate a topic. 2 Collect and evaluate evidence. 3. Establish a position on the topic. 4. Support that position.
Argumentative Writing – How to Requires the writer to 1.Investigate a topic. 2 Collect and evaluate evidence. 3. Establish a position on the topic. 4. Support that position.
Traditionally People went here for research And used these: Photo credit: blog.ivci.com Photo credit: kmu.ac.kr Photo credit: www.agoracosmopolitan.com
Research: Traditional vs. Online Traditional way to put ideas into print. Write the paper paper is reviewed by other academics (peers) changes are suggested author makes changes re-submits the paper How to put ideas online Go to website write something press “submit” or “post”
Research: Traditional vs. Online Using KMU’s library library.kmu.ac.kr • KMU has purchased subscriptions to many academic journals (both domestic and international). • You can also use the library’s website to locate books in the libarary. Search “Applied Linguistics”
Research & the Internet The Internet can be a great tool for research, but finding quality web materials and using them to your advantage in your writing can be challenging.
The need for evaluating sources - Almost any person can publish almost anything on the Internet. - Unlike most print sources, web sources do not have to be professionally accepted and edited to be published.
Looking for Sources You want to consider: - Relevance (to your topic) - Quality - Bias
Looking for Sources: Quality Quality sources are: • Trustworthy facts. • Verifiable anecdotes (not, “My dad said…”). • Expert/Well-informed opinions. Also need to consider where the source got the information (first hand: primary or secondhand” secondary).
Looking for Sources: Quality Possibly Quality: • Journal articles. • News articles. • Books/ PROFESSIONAL magazines. • Organizations’ websites. • Videos (i.e., TED) Poor Quality: • Yahoo! Answers. • Wiki answers. • Wikipedia • Personal blogs. • Message boards. • Naver Cafes.
Looking for Sources: Bias Quality sources are: “Studying writing is awesome!” - Why did the author choose “awesome”? This may not necessarily be objective. Objective sources are more reliable because they rely less on peoples’ feelings and personal opinions.
Looking for Sources: Bias Chevrolet Malibu (car) - Chevrolet’s website: http://www.chevrolet.com/malibu-mid-size-sedan.html - Recent news story about GM recalls: http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/gm-recalls-1-5-million-cars-over-power-steering-issue-1.2593275
Research on the Internet 1.Use search engines to your advantage 2. Identify the web site 3. Examine for credibility 4. Determine depth and scope of information 5. Assess date of information
Types of web pages Informative pages Personal web pages Political/interest group pages Marketing-oriented or “infomercial” pages Entertainment pages
Search Engines - An Internet tool that locates web pages and sorts them according to specified keywords. Obviously, Google is the most well-known, but there are others. i.e., www.yahoo.com www.bing.com (difficult to use in Korea go through Daum.net) http://www.excite.com/
Search Engines Enter: flight mh370 into the following search engines: www.yahoo.com www.google.com
Meta Search Engines These sites collect and organize results from several search engines. http://www.dogpile.com/ http://www.all4one.com/ http://www.metacrawler.com/
Meta Search Engines Search for flight mh370 In http://www.dogpile.com/
Google Scholar Google Scholar (scholar.google.com) www.scholar.google.com “Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature.”
Using Keywords Make sure to read the directions for each search engine to get the most out of your search. Use words like “AND” and “OR” to limit your search and get more specified information. i.e., If researching tobacco lawsuits and settlements
Using Keywords i.e., If researching tobacco lawsuits and settlements - You could use these keywords in several combinations. Cancer Lawsuit Tobacco Smoking Teenagers Legislation Settlements
Using Keywords Smart phone use in school i.e., school smartphone statistics. smartphones in schools. School smartphone bans. Smartphone use in classrooms
Using Keywords Smartphone use in school Altering your search – “quotation marks” i.e. smartphones dangerous vs. “smartphones are dangerous”
Using Keywords Smartphone use in school Altering your search - AND i.e. smartphones dangerous AND expensive NOTE: Different search engines have different functions and commands.
Evaluating sources Use search engines to your advantage - Identify the web site - Examine for credibility - Determine depth and scope of information - Assess date of information
Evaluating sources – identify website Assess the authorship, content, and purpose of the web site. This is important because - many web sources are not checked for accuracy. - some personal sites are used to express individual opinions about issues, but not necessarily the facts.- some sites may have purposes that differ from the first impressions.
Evaluating sources – identify website Sometimes the actual purpose of the web site may not be clearly articulated. Can be difficult to separate advertising from accurate information. Some marketing sites will offer misleading information in attempts to sell their products.
Evaluating sources – identify website Examples: The Onion: http://www.theonion.com/ From last year, one famous article from The Onion: http://www.theonion.com/articles/kim-jongun-named-the-onions-sexiest-man-alive-for,30379/
Evaluating sources – identify website Examples: http://www.martinlutherking.org/ Martin Luther King Jr. – A True Historical Examination
Evaluating sources – identify website Examples: WTO (World Trade Organization) http://www.wto.org/ http://www.gatt.org/
Evaluating sources – identify website Whenever possible, try to locate the home page. You can often do this by eliminating some information from the end of the URL. .org .gov .com .net .edu .us .au .uk
Evaluating sources – identify website Whenever possible, try to locate the home page. You can often do this by eliminating some information from the end of the URL. http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue13/music/ http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue13/ http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/
Evaluating sources – identify website • Is the site affiliated with a business or university? • Does the site offer information about a particular person or group? • Who is the creator of the site? • What is the purpose of the site? • Who is the audience of this site? • Can you purchase products at this site?
Examine for credibility Credibility may be compromised by purposeful misinformation or by unintentional neglect. Locating the name of the site’s creator may be challenging. Credentials may be missing even if the author’s name is provided.
Examine for credibility Who is the author of the site? What is the authority or expertise of the individual or group? What else comes up when you type the author’s name into a search engine? Does the source have a political or business agenda? Is the site sponsored by a political or business group? If so, what can you find out about that group?
Examine for credibility Does the site provide a list of sources or a Works Cited page? Can you locate any of the source material? How reliable is this material? Are there links to other credible sites with additional information? Does the site provide a link for emailing the author or webmaster?
Click the following link: http://www.infowars.com/barack-obamas-de-facto-totalitarian-nation/ Next google search “Alex Jones”
Determine depth and scope of information Does the material show signs of research, such as references to other sources, hyperlinks, footnotes, or a reference page? Does the author consider opposing points of view? How closely does the site really match the information for which you are searching? Corroborate information whenever possible!
Evaluating a website Go to Google Scholar www.scholar.google.com Search: dangers of smartphones • Click on the first result “Paranoid Android”
Evaluating a website Compare the following: http://studentblog.worldcampus.psu.edu/index.php/2014/03/the-dangers-of-smartphones-and-why-putting-it-down-may-help-you-in-school/ http://www.macdigita.com/technology/smartphones-suck/
Evaluating a website Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page DO NOT cite Wikipedia in any paper. • It is an open-access encyclopedia, meaning almost anyone can alter/edit the content of an entry. • The information on a Wikipedia page may not be reliable.
Evaluating a website Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page - You may use Wikipedia as a starting point for gathering information, though. i.e., search “Toyota recall”
Evaluating a website Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page - You may use Wikipedia as a starting point for gathering information, though. i.e., search “Toyota recall” - The “References” section provides you with possible sources of information.
Resources - Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab “Searching the Worldwide Web” https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/558/01/ - Internet Detective: http://www.vtstutorials.ac.uk/detective/