Unit V1914 - Present World War I Great Depression World War II Cold War
Themes of Unit 51914-Present • Redefinition and repositioning of the west – Western Europe looses position as world leader; United States and USSR. • Democratic transition – many nations continue to declare independence and establish democratic governments. • Increased contact – trade and cultural diffusion • “Globalization” • Questioning of inequality – extension of civil rights and freedoms. • Anti-imperialism and colonialism • new reliance on Non-religious philosophies
Events of Unit 5 • World War I: 1914-1918 • Great Depression: 1929-1939 • Worldwide economic depression • World War II: 1939-1945 • Cold War: 1945-1989 • Wars: Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq • Israeli-Arab conflicts • Middle east conflicts; Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Jordan • Decolonization and Anti-imperialism in India, Africa, and Asia
World War I • Causes: • Militarism: build-up of the military; glorification of the military and war • Alliances: brought other nations into the war; Central Powers (Triple Alliance)- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Ottoman • Imperialism: created rivalries; colonies brought into the war • Nationalism: pride, devotion for your country • June 28, 1914: assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
World War I • Schlieffen Plan – a massive German attack and defeat of France, then a single-front against Russia. • August 4, 1914: Germany invades neutral Belgium. • Outbreak of war = great excitement and optimism (thought the war would be over by Christmas - NATIONALISM • Quickly spreads to foreign countries; becomes a world war. Impacts colonies and fought in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.
World War I • 1st Global War: colonies FORCED to fight for European nations, Japanese seized islands in the Pacific, British stir up Arab rebellion against Ottoman rule. • Canada, Australia, New Zealand fight in war • Western Front – trenches, stalemate, heavy loss of life, machine gun, poison gas • Eastern Front – fluid, Russian retreat and devastating losses.
Effect of World War I on Russia • February Revolution – provisional government established; Romanov dynasty ended. • Bolshevik Revolution - 1917 led by Lenin • “peace, land, and bread” • Armed revolution to replace Provisional government • Russia signs Treaty of Brest Litovsk • Lost huge amounts of land on western front • Out of world war I • Germany only has to fight on one front now. • Russia lost land, millions of deaths (mostly civilian).
U.S. entry into World War I • Try to remain neutral; isolationist • German unrestricted submarine warfare; British ship the Lusitania sunk. • Zimmerman note – German telegraph sent to Mexico for them to attack America. • Russian Revolution • America enters WWI in 1917 – end the war quickly
Versailles Treaty • Armistice November 1918 • Very harsh terms; punish Germany • Germany accepts responsibility for the war, lost colonies and military, must pay reparations to France and Great Britain. • Destroys German economy • Treaty creates several new countries; Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Lithuania.
Woodrow Wilson • President of the United States • Does not want to punish Germany at Paris Peace Conference • 14 points; limit militaries, end alliances, freedom of the seas, self-determination – wants each nation to determine own government and policies (nationalism).
Versailles Treaty • Georges Clemenceau and David Lloyd George wanted revenge against Germany for losses in World War I. • Oppose Wilson’s plan for lenient treatment of Germany.
League of Nations • Formed after WWI • International organization to prevent future wars and protect human rights. • America never joins • Extremely weak; cannot enforce rules • Italy invades Ethiopia, Japan invades Manchuria – League of Nations cannot enforce decisions • Did provide some help to refugees and humanitarian aid
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk • Ottoman Empire – “sick man of Europe” • Ended after World War I – Central Powers • 1923 Kemal became first president of Turkey • Overthrew the Ottoman sultan • Modernize and Secularize • Known as “the father of the Turks” • Changed alphabet from Arabic to Latin • Introduced western-style dress and customs • Culture based on Europe as opposed to the Middle East • Ruthless tactics to implement changes
Mandates • Created by Versailles Treaty • Former colonies/lands of Central Powers were placed under the control of the League of Nations. • Arab leaders were frustrated by limited autonomy granted them as mandates • Britain remains “in charge” of former colonies.
Effect of WWI on Women • Women gained the right to vote in many industrialized countries after WWI. • Provided an effective home front labor force • Many of the jobs went back to men returning home after the war. • Women encouraged to return to the home and take care of domestic tasks after WWI. • For their role, women’s suffrage movement was advanced.
Balfour Declaration 1917: the British government committed to supporting a Jewish homeland in Palestine. • Anti-colonialism movements: • Led by European-educated elites • Wanted independence • Mandates established • Unfulfilled promise: becomes mandate • Arabs frustrated with lack of independence.
Russia • Stalin takes power when Lenin dies • Establishes totalitarian government • Secret police, great purge, kills all that opposed him, censorship, oppression. • 5 year Plans – economic plan designed to quickly transform the Soviet Union into a leading industrial power. • Collectivization – creation of large-state run farms; results in lower crop production • Kulaks – wealthy peasants lost land and power; despised the collectivization process.
China • Chinese civil war; Guomindang vs. Communist • Sun Yat-sen: leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party; fighting against the Communists; supported by Europe and the United States • Chiang Kai-shek replaces Sun Yat-sen. • Mao Zedong – leader of the Communist Party; appeals to the peasants, gains a lot of support. • Long March – solidifies Mao’s position as leader; established the reputation of Mao Zedong and paved the way for the creation of a Communist state in China
Great Depression • 1929-1939: severe worldwide depression, plagues most of the interwar years. • Economic depression, weakness in democratic governments. • Decrease in world trade, massive poverty and unemployment, stock market crash, bank closing • people turn to communism, socialism for help. • John Maynard Keynes – supported government assistance, provide jobs, expand money supply, public work projects. • 1932: FDR elected President of the United States – tries to reassure Americans; “fire-side” chats; elected to four terms.
WWI and Great DepressionEffect on Asia and Africa • Anti-colonial movements – being forced to fight in WWI intensified resistance to colonialism. • Decrease in trade resulted in a decrease in European influence. • Japan greatly expanded its influence in Asia. • Great Britain granted limited self-government in India.
Effect of the Great Depression • Poor economy, weak government, poverty, unemployment led to the rise of Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin. • Promised revenge and rise in power; 3rd Reich. • Used propaganda to persuade citizens that giving up their rights was the only way to improve economy and end hardships. • Italy, Japan, Germany began process of militarism, imperialism, alliances, and NATIONALISM. • Industrialized nations suffer more than non-industrialized countries – lack of trade
Adolf Hitler • 1932: becomes chancellor of Germany • Eliminates rivals – Gestapo, secret police, brownshirts, and the SS • Establishes NAZI Party as the only party in Germany. • Mein Kampf – extremely racist book; argues for separation of races; Aryan race is superior, justifies imperialism of “weaker” ethnic groups and nations. • Appeasement – Hitler allowed to take over Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Rhineland.
European leaders believed Hitler would honor agreements made at the Munich Conference. • Weak nations, fear of war, poor economy led to World War II. • Benito Mussolini – Fascist leader of Italy: • Ultra nationalist propaganda • Emphasis on sacrifice for the nation state • Ending labor movement • Glorification of the military • Allowed free market; some private business • Blackshirts eliminated all rivals • Established one-party system
Japan • Experienced a dramatic increase in world power between WWI and WWII. • Becomes very militaristic after WWI; Great Depression really hurts their economy. • Japanese goal was to dominate east Asia; take over the Chinese coast, all of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, New Zealand, and Australia. • Wanted to end European control – “Asia for Asia” really meant “Asia for Japan”
Japan • By December 1941, Japan conquered Korea, Taiwan, Manchuria, large amounts of China, Beijing, Shanghai, and Nanjing. • Created the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere – Japanese empire they conquered before and during WWII. • Abused Chinese and Southeast Asian civilians. • Executed thousands of prisoners of war. • Forced prostitution from Korea and Southeast Asia. • Performed chemical and biological experiments on prisoners of war.
Causes of World War II • 1939-1945 • Fought in “theaters” of “arenas” • Causes: • Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism. • Harsh terms of the Versailles Treaty • Appeasement of Hitler • Weakness of the League of Nations • Began with Japanese invasion of Manchuria (China) • European theater began when Germany invaded Poland on Sept. 1, 1939.
World War II • 55-60 million causalities; over half civilians, trillions of dollars in destruction. • Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, Italy • Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Soviet Union (1940), United States (1941) • Blitzkrieg – “lightening war” sudden and massive German invasion of Poland, France. • Early German victories in France, Russia; Japanese victories in the Pacific
Winston Churchill • Prime minister of Great Britain. • Stood alone against Hitler; refused to surrender, encouraged civilians. • RAF defeated German air force in Battle of Britain. • Involved in Peace treaties after the war • Gave “iron curtain” speech during Cold War.
December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor attacked • America enters World War II • Operation Barbarossa – Hitler attacks Russia; eventually stopped at Stalingrad • winter weather and American supplies • Massive bombings on both sides • Tokyo, Dresden, Berlin, Doolittle Raiders • Holocaust – 6 million Jews killed • Japanese-Americans put in interment camps • Limitation of civil rights, propaganda on both sides, bonds, victory gardens, recycling, rationing
World War II • Airplanes, tanks, aircraft carriers, atomic bombs, radar, code-breaking, Manhattan Project • Less trench warfare used • Machine guns, missiles, 101 Airborne • Midway, D-Day, Bulge, Stalingrad, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, Guadalcanal • The key to Allied victory was industrial production – we out produced Axis Powers. • “leapfrogging” or “island-hopping” used in the Pacific theater in steps to invade Japanese mainland. • Japanese finally surrender after atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
World War II - Women • “Rosie the Riveter” became a symbol for increased involvement of women in the industrial workplace during WWII. • Return to domestic jobs after the war; Communist nations encourage women to work outside the home.
Truman Doctrine • Containment of Communism • Will support any nation threatened by communist takeover • NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Collective security • Warsaw Pact – created by Soviet Union in response to the creation of NATO
Marshall Plan • European Recovery Plan • Create allies rather than enemies • Rebuild Europe to prevent spread of Communism and stop Soviet expansion. • Millions of dollars spent to rebuild W. Europe’s economy. • Less likely to become communist
United Nations • Begins after WWII, first met in San Francisco, 50 nations, today in New York City. • UN Security Council: USA, China, France, GB, USSR • Every nation is a member today • International organization • Humanitarian aid, prevent wars • Human rights • 1947: the United Nations proposed that Palestine should be divided into Jewish and Arab halves. • Israel become an independent state • Arab-Israeli conflict results from lack of a Palestinian state.
Cold War – the Bi-Polar World • State of hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union; 1945-1991 • Tension, fought indirectly between U.S. and USSR in several “hot” wars throughout cold war era. • Capitalism vs. Communism • Standoff between the two superpowers: Soviet Union and the United States never fought directly, but an estimated 50 million people (half civilian) died in small-to-medium conflicts fought worldwide during the Cold War.
Cold War • Brezhnev Doctrine: Soviet Union has the right to invade any socialist country that was hostile to socialism. • Stalin and the Soviet leadership pushed for as many concessions as possible from the U.S., both in Asia and Europe, but not at the risk of war. • Marshall plan helped Western Europe recover from WWII; COMECON was Soviet plan to help Eastern Europe. • 1948: Berlin Blockade – flew thousands of missions to bring food and supplies to West Berlin.
Domino Theory • If one nation in area falls, others will fall to communism. • Many nations had just won independence and might seek alignment. • If Soviets attempted to gain influence, America had to compete. • Cuba (Castro) – 1959; Vietnam • America supported all anti-communist groups; accepted dictators and other authoritarian governments
Dwight D. Eisenhower • 1948: elected President of the United States. • Was supreme commander of the European Theater during WWII. • Moderate Republican; President during the Korean War, • Great U.S. economy during his Presidency, known as “Ike”, developed Interstate system. • Domino Theory, threatened use of nuclear bombs in Korea. • Built-up conventional weapons • Richard Nixon was his Vice-President
Korean War • 1950-1953 • North Korea (Communist) forces invade South Korea (non-Communist) forces. • U.S. and United Nations defend the south • Soviet Union aids the north • More than 1 million deaths; 52,000 Americans killed. • War ended with a divided country
Arms Race / Space Race • Massive military build-up during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. • Everything was a competition; decolonization caused U.S. and USSR to compete for influence in the regions. • Yuri Gagarin become first person in space; John Glenn is first American. • Sputnik is the first satellite launched into orbit. • Both events cause Americans to worry about math and science education in the U.S. • Advancements in “space race” had military implications – ICBM. Americans are nervous about the Soviet technological developments.
Decolonization • Former colonies are competed for by the Soviet Union and the United States. • Regions in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East become political and diplomatic battlegrounds for the Cold War. • Areas are forced to choose align with the U.S. or USSR • Some become military battlegrounds over which the two superpowers compete for influence.
Latin America • Attempt to modernize after WWII; led to concentration of wealth in the hands of a few • Argentina: Juan Peron – appealed to the poor • wife Eva was extremely popular with people • A brutal regime ruled from 1976-1983; ruthlessly purged intellectuals and dissidents, 30,000 missing • Brazil and Chile also had military regimes from the mid 1960’s to the mid 1980’s. • Mexico – was run by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI); better economy (oil) • Protest against mistreatment of minorities and other groups.
Cuba • 1959: Castro overthrew dictator Batista • Goals: modernize, industrialize, increase literacy rates, eliminate inequality, land reform • Fought against U.S. imperialism and influence in the area • Created alliance with the Soviet Union • 1961: Bay of Pigs – U.S. support of Cuban rebels to overthrow Castro; invasion failed • Strengthened Castro’s position and ties with Soviet Union; strengthened Castro’s commitment to communism • Diminished US prestige in Latin America • 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis – Soviets put missiles in Cuba to protect against U.S. invasion; tense standoff. • Closest America and the Soviet Union came to war
John F. Kennedy • 1960: becomes President of the United States; youngest ever elected. • First Roman Catholic to be president. • WWII veteran, extremely popular • Represents “youth” and energy in American society. • Moderate Democrat, cut taxes, defense spending, started the Peace Corps., first to send American “advisors” to Vietnam. • President during Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis • Assassinated in November, 1963. • Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president
Latin America • Castro did improve education and modernization, but violate human rights and freedoms. • Latin America became a Cold War battlefield; America supported any regime that opposed communism. • 1979: Nicaraguan Revolution, Sandinista (Soviets supported) overthrew US supported Somoza dictator. • America began to support the Contras fighting to overthrow Sandinista
Asia • 1967: Association of Southeast Asian Nations – boosted economic, social, and cultural developments and cooperation among their members. • The Philippines: decolonized after WWII; gained freedom in 1946 • India earned freedom in 1945 • Gandhi assassinated in 1948 • Pakistan created as a Muslim republic • Supported by Muhammad Jinnah • Corruption, political repression, and military rule. • India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons; increased tension in the area.
Japan • After WWII, Japan was occupied by American forces; invested military and economy. • Japan became a parliamentary democracy, Emperor was figurehead and Diet (parliament) runs the country. • Japan modernized; becomes superpower in region; 3rd most productive nation. • 1990’s – suffers recession and government corruption; younger generations demand change, challenge traditional roles, women’s rights.
Taiwan, South Korea • Developed prosperous and free societies • Not democracies, but anti-communists. • Chiang Kai-shek in control of Taiwan, until death in 1975. • 1989: free elections in S. Korea • Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan are known as the “little tigers” – later Thailand. • Important for American cold war strategies, politically and economically.
Vietnam War • 1954-1975 • Won independence from France; Laos, Cambodia also achieve independence • United States supported the French. Use of guerilla warfare tactics; country divided • Ho Chi Minh – becomes communist leader of North Vietnam; Ngo Dinh Diem – elected leader of South Vietnam. • 1959 - North Vietnam invades • 1965 – LBJ sends American ground forces • 1968 – Tet Offensive: major attack by north • 1973 – American withdrawal; 1975 – Northern capture and unify country • 58,000 Americans killed; nation is Communist
Lyndon B. Johnson • President after Kennedy was assassinated in 1963. • “Great Society” war on poverty • Welfare programs • Cambodia • Communist Khmer Rouge movement killed over 2 million people • U.S. backed Ferdinand Marcos, corrupt, violent