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Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund

Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund

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Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund

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  1. BusinessResearch MethodsWilliam G. Zikmund Chapter 20: Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

  2. Descriptive Analysis • The transformation of raw data into a form that will make them easy to understand and interpret; rearranging, ordering, and manipulating data to generate descriptive information

  3. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Frequency table Proportion (percentage) Frequency table Category proportions (percentages) Mode Two categories Nominal More than two categories

  4. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Ordinal Rank order Median

  5. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Interval Arithmetic mean

  6. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Ratio Index numbers Geometric mean Harmonic mean

  7. Tabulation • Tabulation - Orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format • Frequency table • Percentages

  8. Frequency Table • The arrangement of statistical data in a row-and-column format that exhibits the count of responses or observations for each category assigned to a variable

  9. Central Tendency Measure of Central Measure of Type of Scale Tendency Dispersion Nominal Mode None Ordinal Median Percentile Interval or ratio Mean Standard deviation

  10. Cross-Tabulation • A technique for organizing data by groups, categories, or classes, thus facilitating comparisons; a joint frequency distribution of observations on two or more sets of variables • Contingency table- The results of a cross-tabulation of two variables, such as survey questions

  11. Cross-Tabulation • Analyze data by groups or categories • Compare differences • Contingency table • Percentage cross-tabulations

  12. Base • The number of respondents or observations (in a row or column) used as a basis for computing percentages

  13. Elaboration and Refinement • Moderator variable • A third variable that, when introduced into an analysis, alters or has a contingent effect on the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. • Spurious relationship • An apparent relationship between two variables that is not authentic.

  14. Quadrant Analysis Two rating scales 4 quadrants two-dimensional table Importance- Performance Analysis)

  15. Data Transformation • Data conversion • Changing the original form of the data to a new format • More appropriate data analysis • New variables

  16. Data Transformation Summative Score = VAR1 + VAR2 + VAR 3

  17. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree/Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree/Strongly Disagree Collapsing a Five-Point Scale

  18. Index Numbers • Score or observation recalibrated to indicate how it relates to a base number • CPI - Consumer Price Index

  19. Calculating Rank Order • Ordinal data • Brand preferences

  20. Tables • Bannerheads for columns • Studheads for rows

  21. Charts and Graphs • Pie charts • Line graphs • Bar charts • Vertical • Horizontal

  22. Line Graph

  23. Bar Graph

  24. WebSurveyor Bar Chart

  25. Computer Programs • SPSS • SAS • SYSTAT • Microsoft Excel • WebSurveyor

  26. Microsoft Excel -Data Analysis

  27. The Paste Function Provides Numerous Statistical Operations

  28. Computer Programs • Box and whisker plots • Interquartile range - midspread • Outlier

  29. Interpretation • The process of making pertinent inferences and drawing conclusions • concerning the meaning and implications of a research investigation