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MODERN LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY Honors Non-Western Studies ~~ Mr. Tumino
Prentice Hall World History Ch. 8, section 3; Ch. 13, section 4; Ch. 16, section 1; Chapter 24, sections 1-4
3 What Caused Discontent in Latin America? By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America. There, discontent was rooted in the social, racial, and political system that had emerged during 300 years of Spanish rule. • Creoles resented their second-class status. • Mestizos and mulattoes were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power available to whites. • Native Americans suffered economic misery under the Spanish. • Enslaved Africans who worked on plantations longed for freedom.
3 Struggles for Independence MEXICO HAITI CENTRAL AMERICA Spanish-ruled lands declared their independence in the early 1820s. Local leaders set up the United Provinces of Central America. The union soon fragmented into separate republics of Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica. In 1791, Toussaint L’Ouverture led slaves in revolt. By 1798, enslaved Haitians had been freed. In 1802, Napoleon sent an army to recapture Haiti. Napoleon’s forces agreed to a truce, or temporary peace. In 1804, Haitian leaders declared independence. Father Miguel Hidalgo and José Morales led popular revolts. Rebels led by Agustín de Iturbide overthrew the Spanish viceroy, creating an independent Mexico. Iturbide took the title of emperor, but was quickly overthrown. Liberal Mexicans set up the Republic of Mexico.
3 Independence in South America In South America, Native Americans had rebelled against Spanish rule as early as the 1700s, with limited results. It was not until the 1800s that discontent sparked a widespread drive for independence. Simon Bolívar, called “The Liberator,” led an uprising that established a republic in Venezuela. He then captured Bogotá, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. • In 1816, José de San Martín helped Argentina win freedom from Spain. He then joined forces with Bolívar. • Bolívar tried to unite the liberated lands into a single nation called Gran Columbia. However, bitter rivalries made that dream impossible. Before long, Gran Columbia split into three independent countries: Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador.
3 Independent Nations of Latin America About 1844
3 Independence Movements in Latin America Long-Term Causes Immediate Causes People of Latin America resent colonial rule and social injustices Revolutionary leaders emerge Napoleon invades Spain and ousts Spanish king European domination of Latin America Spread of Enlightenment ideas American and French revolutions Growth of nationalism in Latin America Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Toussaint L‘Ouverture leads slave revolt in Haiti Bolívar, San Martín, and others lead successful revolts in Latin America Colonial rule ends in much of Latin America Attempts made to rebuild economies 18 separate republics set up Continuing efforts to achieve stable democratic governments and to gain economic independence
4 Political Problems During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships. • Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy. • With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by regionalism, loyalty to a local area.
4 The Economics of Dependence Economic dependence occurs when less-developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological know-how. The relationship is unequal because the more developed — and wealthier nation — can control prices and terms of trade. Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal. After independence, this pattern changed very little. The region remained as economically dependent as before.
4 The Influence of the United States In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the American continents were no longer open to colonization by any European powers. In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Under this policy, the United States claimed “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere. • In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and investments. In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land to build the Panama Canal. • To people in Latin America, the canal was an example of “Yankee Imperialism.”
4 Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917
5 New Economic Patterns • A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the United States, Britain, France, and Germany. • Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that replaced the old barter system. • Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world further disrupted traditional economies. • Local economies that had once been self-sufficient became dependent on the industrial powers.
5 Cultural Impact • As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed subject people to accept “modern” ways. By this, they meant western ideas, government, technology, and culture. • Many non-westerners, especially in conquered lands, came to accept a belief in western superiority. • The overwhelming successes of the western imperialist nations sapped people’s confidence in their own leaders and cultures. • Western culture spread around the world.
1 Causes of the Mexican Revolution Most Mexicans were peasants who lived in desperate poverty. Factory workers and miners earning meager wages were restless and angry. Middle-class liberals, who embraced democracy, opposed the lengthy Díaz dictatorship. A liberal reformer, Francisco Madero, encouraged revolt.
1 Reforms in Mexico The Constitution of 1917: • permitted the breakup of large estates • placed restrictions on foreigners owning land • allowed nationalization, or government takeover, of natural resources • made church land “the property of the nation” • set a minimum wage • protected workers’ right to strike • gave some protections to women In the 1920s, the government also: • helped some Indian communities regain lands that had been taken from them • launched a massive effort to combat illiteracy
1 How Did Nationalism Affect Mexico? A tide of economic nationalism, or emphasis on domestic control of the economy, swept through Mexico and other Latin American countries. • Local entrepreneurs set up factories to produce goods. • The government nationalized resources and took over foreign- owned industries. In Mexico and in other Latin American countries, writers, artists, and thinkers began to reject European influences. Instead, they took pride in their own culture. Pride in one’s own culture is called cultural nationalism. • A revival of mural painting, a major art form of the Aztecs, took place. Muralists like Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros created magnificent works.
1 The Good Neighbor Policy The United States played the role of “international policeman,” intervening to restore order when it felt its interests were threatened. This included sending troops to Latin American countries to protect American interests. These actions stirred up anti-American feelings among Latin Americans. In the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt pledged to follow the Good Neighbor Policy. The United States withdrew troops stationed in Haiti and Nicaragua. It also lifted the Platt Amendment, which had limited Cuban independence.
1 Why Is Latin America a Diverse Region? Conquest • After 1492, Europeans imposed their civilization on Native Americans. Immigration • Since the late 1800s, immigrants from Europe and Asia have contributed to the diversity. Intermarriage • As Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans mingled, they created new cultures.
1 Ethnic Diversity in Latin America
1 Sources of Unrest • A growing gulf between the rich and the poor fueled discontent in the postwar era. • A population explosion contributed to poverty. • Pressure on the land contributed to a great migration that sent millions of peasants to the cities.
1 Political Forces in Latin America • Most Latin American states had constitutions modeled on those of France and the United States. Yet, real democracy seemed difficult to achieve in nations plagued by poverty and inequality. • Conflict between conservatives and reformers contributed to political instability in many nations. • Military leaders held power in many Latin American nations. • During the 1960s and 1970s, guerrillas and urban terrorists battled repressive governments in many Latin American countries. • By the mid-1980s, inflation, debt, and growing protests led repressive leaders to step aside. • A number of countries held elections to replace military governments with civilian governments. • Heavy debt burden and economic slowdowns have threatened the success of elected rulers, putting the stability of democratic governments in the region in doubt.
1 Economic Development By the 1960s, Latin America faced growing competition from African and Asian nations. To reduce dependence on imported goods, many governments encouraged the development of local industries. This policy, called import substitution, had mixed success. Over the past 60 years, large areas of land were opened up to farming. Much of the best farmland belonged to agribusiness.Commercial agriculture increased the need to import food. In the 1980s, the region was rocked by economic crisis. In the 1990s, free trade organizations, such as NAFTA, opened Latin American economies to larger markets. The mutual support and expanded markets of these organizations did bring some economic growth in the years around 2000.
1 Changing Social Patterns In Latin America, as elsewhere, urbanization brought social upheaval. URBANIZATION WOMEN RELIGION Upper-class women had access to education and careers. Rural women often faced hardship and poverty. Women struggled to win change. City life weakened the extended family. The struggle to make a living caused some families to fall apart. In large cities, thousands of abandoned or runaway children roamed the streets. The Catholic Church has remained a powerful force. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Church crusaded for social justice and an end to poverty. This movement became known as liberation theology.
2 Communism in Cuba In the late 1950s, Fidel Castro turned Cuba into a communist state. Castro: • nationalized foreign-owned sugar plantations and other businesses • put most land under government control • distributed land to peasants Effects of communist rule: Castro imposed harsh authoritarian rule. Conditions for the poor improved, basic health care was provided for all, the literacy rate increased, and equality for women was promoted. Critics were jailed or silenced and hundreds of thousands fled to the United States. When the Cold War ended, Soviet aid disappeared, and Cuba’s economy collapsed.
2 The United States and Latin America • The United States was the leading investor and trading partner for most nations in Latin America. • During the Cold War, the United States intervened repeatedly in Latin America to protect its interests and to prevent the spread of communism. • The United States saw itself as the defender of democracy and capitalism and the source of humanitarian aid. Many Latin Americans, however, resented living under the shadow of the “colossus of the north.” • Latin American nations and the United States worked together in the Organization of American States (OAS). The organization was formed in 1948 to promote democracy, economic cooperation, and human rights.
2 Regional and Global Issues REGIONAL TIES THE DRUG WARS Drug cartels in Latin America began exporting ever-larger quantities of cocaine and other drugs. In the 1980s, the United States declared a “war on drugs,” pressing Latin American governments to cooperate with these efforts. Regional trading blocs gained importance in the 1990s. Such groups created larger markets by lowering trade barriers among neighboring countries. Examples: NAFTA, Mercosur DEVELOPMENT VERSUS ENVIRONMENT MIGRATION Developing nations insisted that they needed to exploit their land and other resources if they wanted economic growth. This came at the expense of the environment. Poverty, civil war, and repressive governments caused Latin American immigration to the United States to increase rapidly after the 1970s. Pressure increased in the United States to halt illegal immigration.
3 Continuity and Change in Mexico After the Mexican Revolution, government officials became committed to improving conditions for the poor. At the end of the 1900s, however, Mexico remained a disturbing mix of poverty and prosperity. Since the Mexican Revolution, a single party — the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) — dominated Mexican politics. In the 1990s, the PRI began to lose its monopoly on power. In the 1930s, the Mexican government distributed millions of acres of land to peasants. Over the years, as economic conditions worsened, many peasants migrated to towns and cities. The population of Mexico City mushroomed from 1.5 million in 1940 to about 20 million in 1995.
3 War and Peace in Central America In Central America, unrest threatened and discontent grew. Fearing the spread of communism, the U.S. intervened repeatedly in the region. GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA Fearing communist influence, the United States helped oust Guatemala’s reformist government in 1954. While the military regained power, decades of civil war ensued, during which the government routinely tortured and murdered critics. During a vicious civil war, right-wing death squads slaughtered anyone thought to sympathize with the leftists. The United States pressed for reform, but at the same time provided weapons and other aid to help the military battle rebel guerrillas. In 1979, revolutionaries called Sandinistas ousted the ruling Somoza family. Fearing that Nicaragua would become socialist, the United States secretly backed the “contras” in a long civil war against the Sandinistas.
3 Struggle in Haiti POLITICAL STRUGGLES ECONOMIC STRUGGLES Haiti is the poorest state in the Western Hemisphere, lacking adequate roads, electricity, and other services. The weakness of the government discouraged foreign investment. A skewed distribution of wealth put most of the productive land in the hands of one or two percent of the citizens. Haiti endured brutal dictatorial rule from 1957 until 1986. A succession of military leaders then ruled the nation until 1990. In 1990, in its first free elections, Jean-Bertrand Aristide was chosen as president. Aristide was overthrown by a military coup, but restored to power by the United States.
4 From Dictatorship to Democracy in Argentina From 1946 to 1955, the authoritarian government of Juan Perón stifled opposition. In 1955, Perón was ousted by a military coup. For two decades, the military was in and out of power. In 1973, Perón returned to power. When he died the next year, his second wife, Isabel Perón, became president. When she faced economic and political crises, the military took over. To combat leftist guerrillas, the army waged a “dirty war,” torturing and murdering as many as 20,000 people. In 1983, an elected government restored democracy. Despite some setbacks, democratic rule survived.
4 Economic Activity in Argentina
4 Government in Brazil Between 1930 and 1945, dictator Getúlio Vargas allied himself with the working poor. In 1945, the military overthrew Vargas. The military allowed elected presidents to rule for the next 20 years. In the mid-1980s, the military eased their grip on power. Brazilians voted directly for a president for the first time in 29 years. In 1964, economic problems and fear of communism led the military to take over again.
4 Urbanization in Brazil
4 Brazil’s Economic Miracle Beginning in the 1930s, Brazil diversified its economy and, for a time, chalked up impressive growth. Brazil’s prosperity enriched only a few. To most Brazilians, it brought little or no benefit. In the 1980s, Brazil faced a host of economic problems — from inflation to a staggering debt. One of the greatest economic problems was the unequal distribution of land. In the 1990s, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, provided strong leadership for Brazil. His policies promoted rapid economic growth and helped limit inflation. He promised to distribute land to 300,000 families.