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The Literature

The Literature

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The Literature

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  1. The Literature

  2. Analyzing and Critiquing the Literature • A review of literature should be integrated and critical. • Each study should be reviewed individually, summarized and then juxtaposed with other studies in the area showing how this research leads to the question in your specific research. • The variables under study in your research should emerge from the literature. • The design of the study should emerge from the review of literature. • This chapter should lead the reader to an understanding of how your study will contribute to the literature.

  3. What is meta-analysis? • Meta-analysis is a statistical approach to understanding the literature. • Meta-analysis uses effect size statistics to evaluate the literature.

  4. Criticisms of Meta-analysis • Coding of the data • Reporting of significant effects only or lack of reporting of effects that are not statistically significant

  5. Descriptive Research Methods

  6. Scientific Method Decide on a problem Gather facts to refine the problem (narrow definition is best) Develop hypotheses (through induction) Test hypotheses

  7. Definition of Descriptive Research • Descriptive research describes the present status of people, attitudes, and progress.

  8. Forms of Descriptive Research • Ex post facto (after the fact) • Case studies • Correlation studies • Developmental studies • Survey studies

  9. Sampling Techniques • Good sampling techniques are required of all researchers.

  10. Population • A population is defined as all members that are described by the characteristics selected by the experimenter. • All students at SJSU. • All women students at SJSU. • All Kinesiology majors. • All MA sport management students. • All students in KIN 250.

  11. Sample • A sample is a portion of the defined population.

  12. Different types of Samples • Simple random sample • Systematic sample • Stratified sample • Cluster sample • Proportional sample

  13. Simple Random Sample • Table of Random Numbers • Choosing numbers out of a hat

  14. Systematic Sample • Systematically selects every nth person

  15. Stratified Sample • A stratified sample assures a random sample, however the sample has equal numbers within a particular characteristic.

  16. Cluster Sample • A sample is chosen because it is difficult to sample the entire population, e.g., choosing all members of a particular class rather than individuals. • A cluster sample is often easier and less costly, but generalizability is limited because of an N of 1.

  17. Proportional Sample • Proportion out groups that you might want in your sample. • The proportions should be logically based in the literature.

  18. Ex Post Facto Research • Ex post facto research is sometimes called causal comparative research. • Ex post facto research is research that takes place after the fact. • Often ex post facto research is used to explain something in the present from data collected sometime in the past.

  19. Problems with Ex Post Facto Designs • Is the cause that you hypothesize correct? • Many causes may be interrelated or the result of more than one variable interacting. • Extraneous variables may not be accounted for. • Participants are self-selected. What puts them into these categories?

  20. Case Studies • Case studies are usually an examination into one element of a population, e.g., one school district, one school, one research class, one person. • Case studies are often conducted in social work and counseling for diagnosis and recommendation purposes.

  21. Case Studies • Observe – take notes on events and their relationships by their location in time and space. • Subjects’ recall – personal documents, diaries, and letters • Measures may be physical, sociological, or psychological

  22. Case Studies • Must be careful about generalization • Data are limited to one unit • Case studies can be qualitative or quantitative

  23. Writing Hypotheses • Directional (H1) • Physical activity program will affect body composition such that physical activity individuals will lose more fat than sedentary individuals. • Null (HO) • Physical activity will not affect body composition. • Alternative • Physical activity will affect body composition.

  24. The researcher wants to accept the directional hypothesis. The hypothesis is accepted if the probability of finding a statistically significant effect by chance alone is less than 5 times in100 (p<.05). • The researcher wants to reject the null hypothesis. The hypothesis is rejected if the probability of finding a statistically significant effect by chance alone is less than 5 times in 100 (p<.05).

  25. Hypothesis Testing • Alpha () means the probability level acceptable for statistical significance in a study. Type I error also means the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis. • Beta ()) measures the Type II error. Type II error means the probability of accepting a false null hypothesis.

  26. Hypothesis Testing • Alpha () means the probability level acceptable for statistical significance in a study. Type I error also means the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis. • Beta ()) measures the Type II error. Type II error means the probability of accepting a false null hypothesis.

  27. Correlational Studies • Correlational studies examine the relationship between two or more variables. • Correlations examine how variables covary together.

  28. Positive Correlation From: Rothstein, A. L. (1985). Research Design & Statistics for Physical Education. Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

  29. Types of Correlations • Pearson correlation • Spearman correlation • Partial correlation • Multiple correlation • Multiple regression

  30. Developmental Studies • Developmental studies are concerned with changes that take place as a function of time.

  31. Kinesiology • Growth and Development • Physical milestones • Motor Development • Studies of the patterns of movement • Motor learning across the lifespan • Exercise physiology across the lifespan • Biomechanics across the lifespan • Sociocultural effects across the lifespan

  32. Types of Developmental Studies • Longitudinal studies • Long term, collect data from the same subject over a number of years • Cross sectional studies • Short term, usually 6 months or less and all data are collected

  33. Survey Design • Surveys are used to gather extensive amounts of information for large groups of individuals in short time spans.

  34. Survey Designs • Public opinion • Attitudes • Achievement • Educational • Governmental • Industrial • Political

  35. Survey Design • A good survey • Wide scope • Accuracy • Ease of data collection • A bad survey • Superficial • Poor return rate • Poor survey instruments

  36. Things to Keep in Mind When Creating Surveys • Define terms • Avoid statements with double implications • Avoid leading questions • Beware of double negatives

  37. Things to Keep in Mind When Creating Surveys • Clearly identify the survey purpose • Outline the field of study • Avoid overlapping questions • Order questions in a logical format • Simple to complex • Make sure questions are clear • Eliminate ambiguities • Eliminate all grammatical errors • Pre-code data for computation

  38. Profile of Mood States

  39. Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Personality Attributes Questionnaire • Bem (1974) constructed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) – It presented from 20 adjectives viewed as desirable for men, 20 adjectives viewed as desirable for women, and 20 gender-neutral adjectives. • Spence and Helmreich constructed the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ).

  40. Examples of Popular and Widely Used Instruments • Beck Depression Inventory • Myers Briggs Indicator • Keirsey Temperment Sorter • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory • Leadership Opinion Questionnaire • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS IV) • Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory • Measures of Self-Esteem; Self Efficacy • Dishman’s Exercise Adherence Measure

  41. LeUnes, A.D. (2002). Bibliography on psychological tests used in research and practice in sport and exercise psychology. Lewiston, N.Y. : E. Mellen Press. • See: HaPI - Health and Psychosocial Instruments