Management of Engineering Professionals Managing Personal Stress By SnigdhaYedla Submitted to: Mark Rajai
Agenda • Definition of Stress • Managing Stress • Sources of the Stress • Prevention of Stress • Conclusion
Definition of Stress The term “stress”, was coined by Hans Selye in 1936, who defined it as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change”. It makes us change the normal way we live.
Stress Statistics • •40% of workers reported their job was very or extremely stressful; • •25% view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives; • •Three fourths of employees believe that workers have more on-the-job stress than a generation ago; • •29% of workers felt quite a bit or extremely stressed at work; • •26 percent of workers said they were “often or very often burned out or stressed by their work”
Managing Stress • Managing stress is all about taking charge of your thoughts, emotions, schedule, environment, and the way you manage issues. • Stress management starts with identifying the sources of stress in your life.
Strategies to cope with stress • Enactive Strategy: Creating a new environment without the stressor • Proactive Strategy: Increasing your personal resiliency by initiating action, which resists negative stress • Reactive Strategy: On-the-spot techniques when quick response is required
FOUR KEY SOURCES OF STRESS Time Stressors • Work overload. • Lack of control. • Role conflicts. • Issue conflicts • Action conflicts Encounter Stressors Encounter Stressors • Unfavorable working conditions. • Rapid change. Anticipatory Stressors • Unpleasant expectations. • Fear
Time Stressor Determining Usage Of Time • The point when an individual takes in time administration aptitudes, it will help them invest more of an opportunity on additional challenging errands. • Because of ordinary time requirements, we have to figure out how to take advantage of our time with our work by completing more paramount errands. • A basic aspect for effective time management is creating a "To do" list.
20 Rules for Efficient Time Management • Read selectively • Make a list of things to accomplish • Have a place for everything • Prioritize your tasks • Do several trivial things simultaneously • List five 10-minute tasks • Divide up large projects • Determine critical 20 percent of tasks • Save best time for important matters • Limit others’ access to you • Don’t procrastinate • Keep track of time • Set deadlines • Do something productive while waiting • Do busy work at one set time • Reach closure on one thing per day • Schedule some personal time • Don’t worry on continuing basis • Write down long-term goals • Be alert for ways to improve your time management
Encounter Stressor Emotional and social Intelligence Emotional intelligence enable peoples to understand and manage their own and others’ emotions in social interactions. • Direct us to what we want and/or need. • Determine our behavior or actions toward what we want and/or need. • Allow us to access and act upon empathy for others. • Facilitate relationship forming and inspire others. • Create bonds and a sense of higher purpose in groups, families, organizations, and more.
Anticipatory Stressor Goal Setting Based on the four step model of “LOCKE & LATHAM”(1990), goal setting can be used to reduce anticipatory stress. • Establish a Goal • Specify Actions and Behavioral Requirements • Generate Accountability and Reporting Mechanisms • Identify Criteria of Success and a Reward
Situational Stressor Work Redesign Stress can be eliminated by work redesign as lack of freedom is one of the important causes of stress.
How to develop resilience • Resiliency increases capacity to withstand negative effects of stress. Some steps to develop/increase resilience are: • Find Meaning in Adversity. • Build a Community of Support. • Accept & Anticipate Change. • Be Hopeful. • Focus on Gratitude.
Temporary Stress reduction techniques • Muscle relaxation • Deep breathing • Visualization and imagery • Rehearsal • Reframing
Conclusion Stress is unavoidable in ones life. Identify the stress causing factors and try to eliminate it before it affects physically. Since Ihave given the bad effects, I'll include a couple of its favorable circumstances on the credit side. • Stress provokes us and helps us to develop. • We may be pushed at gathering new individuals however it helps your social graces to beat that push. • Taking in new undertakings and actualities additionally stretch us when we attempt to recollect and apply them. However, this same gesture upgrades us cannily. By conquering these minor troubles, we are preparing ourselves to handle more challenging tasks later in our working life.
Agenda • Power definition • Types of power • Model of power and influence • Influence strategies • Behavioral guidelines for gaining power and influence • Neutralizing inappropriate influence attempts • Transforming power into influence • conclusion
Power Power is the ability of one person to influence what another person thinks or does. You have power over another person to the extent that you can influence what this person thinks or what this person does. -DeVito
How to stay on top of power curve? This is accomplished with the aid of two specific management skills: 1. Gaining power 2. Converting power successfully into interpersonal impact in ways that dodge the misuse of power
Different perspectives of power • Balance view of power means that’s we must understand how much power to keep and how much to share, who should get the power and for what purposes. • Lack of power means viewing the power negatively thinking that nothing to do with it. They combine power with manipulation, ruthlessness. This doesn’t not benefit anybody. • Abuse of power means that when thinking of their position in power, some develop such inconsistent sense of self-importance that they fail to listen to the advice of others, opinions that are different from their own.
Kinds of Power Power bases fall under two major categories. • Personal power: It is internal to a person. It is the skill set that earned a specific job title, it is the knowledge gained by studying hard, by intelligence etc… • Positional power: It is external to a person. It is the important job title or the degree or with ones house. Because these things are external to a person, they may be taken away from them.
Sources of Personal Power • Expertise: It is the task relevant knowledge that is a great organizational equalizer. • Effort: Effort is one of the most highly prized characteristics of employees because it means they are dependable, reliable human sources. • Legitimacy: Actions that are congruent with the prevailing value system are deemed legitimate, by other organizational members. • Attraction: Interpersonal attraction is a source of personal power. Charisma, agreeable characteristics and physical appearance are some of kinds of attractions.
Sources of Positional Power • Centrality : Access to information in a communication network is called centrality • Flexibility : It is the amount of discretion vested in a position. • Visibility : Degree to which task performance is seen by influential people in the organization. • Relevance : it means being associated with activities that are directly related to the central objectives and issues in an organization
Model of power and Influence It is a model of power and influence in which both personal and position power are improved for owner’s benefit. • Sources of Position Power • Centrality • Criticality • Flexibility • Visibility • Relevance • Source of Personal Power • Expertise • Personal Attraction • Effort • Legitimacy Gaining power Power of an Individual Selection of proper strategy to Influence others Assertive responses To inappropriate influence Attempts by others Transforming power into influence Increasing Authority via Upward influence Influence Over Others
Influence Strategies People may have power but may not be able to secure the cooperation of others for accomplishing an objective. Hence, influencing a people is a crucial step in accomplishing tasks. Influence strategies are of three types. They are called the 3 R’s. They are: • Retribution strategy • Reciprocity strategy • Reason strategy
The three R’s • Retribution involves forcing someone to do what you are asking. A direct approach is the use of corrosion, which occurs when someone uses threats to gain compliance. • Reciprocity involves satisfying the self interest of both kinds of people. A direct approach is nothing but using of bargain, in which each party exchanges something of satisfactory and mutual value. An indirect approach is ingratiation, where friendly behavior occurs. • Reasonmatters persuading others that it makes sense to do what you say. A direct approach is the need to support one’s point of view. An indirect approach appeals to use personal values. Persuasion here is not to be confused with self-interested manipulation, which uses implicit and deceptive tactics to gain own choices.
How to use influence strategies successfully? • Understanding the systems to impact associates and key chiefs will help them to make their point adequately and get the effects. • Utilize the impact methodologies exercise to: help your experts and pioneers to comprehend themselves better • Broaden the practices they use to impact others • Improve balanced drilling and aggregation improvement programs • Supplement other input assets to give a greater picture of singular conduct and effect
Behavioral guidelinesfor Gaining power and influence • Utilizing the reason, reciprocity and retribution influence strategies at whatever point they are needed. • Improving our personal power for expansion in centrality and focus for the position. • By applying the thoughts and procedures with organizational qualities prompts expand in authenticity. • Expanding the visibility of the employment execution by approaching the senior directors to distinguish your work. • Offering issues to bosses and making profits to the supervisor.
Neutralizinginappropriate influence attempts Neutralize Retribution Strategies Used by Others • Immediate showdown • Exploit the powerless • Final resort - Fight fire with flame Neutralize Reciprocity Strategies Used by Others • Think about if there are any intentions behind blessings • Face individuals who attempt to deal with you • Don't submit to weight Neutralize Reason Strategies Used by Others • Talk about your worries • Protect your individual rights • "Stick to your weapons" - Be firm
Transforming Power into Influence • Practicing upward influence: Increasing the visibility of the employment execution by approaching the senior directors to distinguish your work and offering issues to bosses. • Acting confidently: neutralizing influence endeavors: individuals utilizing power and impact as a part of ways that are not having great fitting significance, then the individual of the impact endeavors must have the ability to kill these unwanted practices. • Expressing our personal rights when trying to reason has failed. This may involve appealing to a basic sense of fairness saying no.
Conclusion • Balanced view of power is alluded as the discriminating component in an association . Building solid power in an association hails from an influential single person. • Both Personal and positional sources of power are enhanced by supervisors for the accomplishment of an association. • Changing over power into influence is the key point. It holds both upward and descending impacts as stated by the circumstances. • By utilizing power and influence procedures effectively, one can chip in for the best association.
As an international student, I have experienced a lot of stress during my first exam of my first semester. I had just started working part-time on-campus two weeks before the exam was scheduled and I was under a lot of stress trying to manage the new work load and preparing for the exam. As I was new to the country, I had very little knowledge about how to make a report/ paper as this I had never done it before in my country. I was acquainted with the written exams but not with the take home exams. I panicked and I wasted a lot of time stressing about how difficult it was. I did not realize by the end of the night that I had wasted a lot of the time stressing instead of working n the report. I understood that I wasn’t good at time management and I had: • Procrastinated • Did not set deadlines • Did not prioritize the tasks • Did not set time for the important tasks Due to the above reasons, I gave a poor performance and I ended up scoring less in that exam which ultimately effected my grade.
I had another exam just a week after my previous exam and I realized that if it goes in the same way, I will end up with a very bad GPA and it may also affect me physically and mentally if I stress out . So I took charge over the situation and followed the following steps to manage my stress and to perform better. I recognized the kind of stressor it was and related it to the chapter “Managing Personal Stress”. I realized that it was work over-load and understood that it was a time stressor. I recollected the ways to eliminate time stressor. They are • Time management • Delegating
In order to manage time efficiently this time, I made • A list of things to accomplish • A time for work/study/personal life • Prioritized my tasks • Determined critical 20 percent of tasks • Tried to saved best time for important matters • Limited others’ access to me • Did not procrastinate • Kept track of time • Set deadlines The results were inevitable. Just by keeping certain rules without stressing out, I had accomplished my task of getting a better grade. I’ve been following the regimen ever since.
I have developed a resilience for controlling stress by being hopeful and knowing that nothing is for ever. In spite of trying to manage time efficiently in most cases, I sometimes fail to do so and ultimately end up stressing out. During such incidents, I try the temporary stress busters such as • Muscle relaxation • Deep breathing • Visualization and imagery • Rehearsal • Reframing This helps me from temporary stress and helps me focus better without wasting time on stressing out. This subject had made my life easier in many ways and I will continue to use them through the rest of my life.
Article Upload http://www.vacancycentre.com/The-Resource-Library/Advice-to-Employers/Dealing-with-Employees/Motivation-Motivating-Yourself-to-Motivate-Others The above article is related to the topic 'Motivating Others'. This article discusses about how essential it is for a manager to motivate his employees and most importantly to motivate himself first in order to motivate them. • It justifies the statement "Motivation is not a task, but a process". • It discusses some factors that might be the some of the causes for lack of motivation in employees. • This article provides some simple steps to create a motivating environment which will lead to increased productivity.
Feed back on http://www.forbes.com/sites/work-in-progress/2011/12/21/five-steps-to-increase-your-influence/ This article is a very interesting topic on how to influence people. It discusses about • How power of a person in modern approach has changed completely compared to the traditional approach. • The five different styles of influencing people based on a research conducted. • And the five different steps to ultimately increase your influence in this modern team-based models. This article has personally changed my perception which is the common mistake to use a one-size-fits-all approach. I have learnt from this article that each situation must be handled differently and also the same situation with different people must be handled differently at work.