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Different Eras of Federalism

Different Eras of Federalism

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Different Eras of Federalism

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  1. Different Eras of Federalism

  2. Dual Federalism of the Rural Republic (1789-1865) • Enumerated powers • Sovereign and equal spheres • Nullification • Eventually settled by the Civil War

  3. Dual Federalism Serving Commerce (1865-1901) • Focus on commerce • "to perfect the free economy“ • Growing government at both levels • States as senior partners in police powers and providing services

  4. Cooperative Federalism (1901-1960) • Shared functions • focus on providing services • broadly collaborative patterns • Income Tax; Grants-in-aid • Fed is “servant to the states” • New Deal

  5. Creative Federalism (1960-1968) • Overloaded cooperation • Intergovernmental fiscal transfers • Crosscutting regulation and states as implementers of federal mandates • Increased regulations (strings) • Great Society (LBJ)

  6. New Federalism and the Reaction (1970-) • Revenue sharing • Devolution • Growth of unfunded mandates • Deregulation • Supply-side reductions • Deficit dominates