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Social Justices

Social Justices

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Social Justices

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  1. Social Justices Sara Green Jelesha Murphy Tyner Pearson

  2. Reconstruction(1865-1877)

  3. What was Reconstruction? • “The Reconstruction Period was the period after the American Civil War when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the union. 1865-1877”

  4. Events Leading up to Reconstruction • End of the Civil War (April 9, 1865) • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln (April 15, 1865) • Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes president

  5. Freedmen’s Bureau • Was established in the War Dept. in March, 1865 • Provided assistance to freed slaves after the civil war • Was opposed by President Johnson • Lacked the military backing it needed but was still successful • Established black colleges and institutions • Howard University • Hampton Institute

  6. Freedmen’s Bureau cont’d • Did not bring blacks and whites together in the South • Needed support from northern and southern politicians, which it didn’t get • Staff was cut dramatically in 1869 and the bureau ended in 1872

  7. General O.O. Howard (Freedmen’s Bureau) • Important Freedmen’s Bureau commissioner • Civil War Hero • Sympathetic to blacks • Firmly believed that blacks should gain their rights as quickly as possible • Thought the bureau was temporary

  8. Reconstruction Amendments • The 13th amendment was ratified in 1865 and abolished slavery • The 14th amendment was ratified in 1868 and granted all persons born in the US citizenship and equal protection under the law • The 15th amendment was ratified in 1870 and granted African American male suffrage

  9. Civil Rights Bill • Passed by congress on April 9, 1866 over President Johnson’s veto • all persons born in the US were now citizens • Ku Klux Klan • Failed to guarantee civil rights of African Americans

  10. Radical Republicans • Became powerful in congress after 1860 election • Abolish slavery • Believed that freed slaves should have complete equality with whites • Opposed Fugitive Slave Act and Kansas-Nebraska Act • Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner

  11. Reconstruction Accomplishments • 1872-1873 P.B.S. Pinchback became the first black to serve as a state governor • 1874- Robert Smalls elected to Congress as a SC representative • 1873-75 forty-third congress- 6 blacks in HOR • 1875-77 forty-fourth congress- 6 blacks in HOR • Civil Rights Act enacted by congress; later found unconstitutional

  12. Sources "African American Records: Freedmen's Bureau." National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/freedmens-bureau/>. "1866 Civil Rights Act." Spartacus Educational. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcivil1866.htm>. "Reconstruction Period." The Free Dictionary. 2011. Web. Oct.-Nov. 2011. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Reconstruction+Period>. "Reconstruction Timeline." Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/recon/chron.html>. "The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow . Jim Crow Stories . Freedmen's Bureau | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_freed.html>.

  13. Progressive Era(1890s-1920s)

  14. Progressive Era • The Progressive Era in American history was a time of great change and reform in the United States. • The period occurred from the 1890s to 1920 and was a series of political, social, and economical reforms focused on problems that arose due to urban growth and the Industrial Revolution.

  15. Goals • The four main goals during the era were, • Protecting social welfare • Promoting moral improvement • Creating economic reform • Fostering efficiency

  16. Problems • Several Problems existed among the workplace and the workers • Poverty • Unsanitary slums in American citiespoor working conditions • Child labor in factories • Corporate trusts that eliminated competition and raised prices with impunity. • Discrimination against women and ethnic minorities • Corruption in political machines

  17. Labor Organization • In 1879 the Knights of Labor, a workers organization promoting a supportive commonwealth in opposition to the industrial system ,which started turning into a powerful social and political force. • Terence Powderly lead the Knights of Labor and with his support it grew and gained more power.

  18. Unions • Unions were workers on strike during the progressive era demanding better working conditions & shorter working hours. • Unions began because of • Low wages • Long working hours with little breaks • Terrible working conditions • To end child labor • Unfair treatment

  19. American Federation of Labor (AFL) • Founded by Samuel Gompers • Craft union • Mostly white men • More conservative • Wanted shorter hours, higher wages, better working conditions

  20. Industrial Workers of the World • Founded by “Big Bill” Haywood • Industrial union, came out of Western mining strikes. • Used strikes, boycotts, songs, and education. • Rejected political parties and elections. • Believed change will come through ageneral strike and the workers will take over. • Nicknamed Wobblies

  21. What the Wobblies wanted • Against capitalism • Revolutionary union • Workers should own industries • Work toward a national general strike • Distrust of electoral politics

  22. Three events changed labor • 1902 Anthracite strike (TR supports miners against capital) • 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist fire (sweatshop working conditions exposed) • 1912 Bread and Roses textile strike, Lawrence, Massachusetts (high point of the IWW)

  23. Supreme Court decisions against labor • Lochner v. New York (1905) states were not allowed to restrict work hours • Danbury Hatters case (1908) unions were not allowed to boycott • Before the Clayton Antitrust Act, striking was against the law

  24. New Laws • Child labor laws-most states passed minimum working age laws and prohibited children from working more than 10 hours per day, but enforcement was difficult to achieve. • Muller V. Oregon (1908)-limited women's working hours • Workers received better working conditions and better wages.

  25. Presidents of the Progressive Era • Theodore Roosevelt • William Howard Taft • Woodrow Wilson

  26. Muckrakers • Thomas Nast • Jacob Riis • Ida B. Wells • Frank Norris • Ida Tarbell • Lincoln Steffans • Upton Sinclair

  27. Muckrakers cont.

  28. Social Reformers • Jane Adams • Margaret Sanger • Booker T. Washington • W.E.B. DuBois

  29. Tenements • Caused by the increased number of immigrants • Homes that were poorly sanitized and disease infested • Often for the lower class • Poor ventilation • Paid $12 - $18 month for four “rooms”

  30. Tenements cont.

  31. Immigration

  32. Immigration • Millions of immigrants move to the United States in late 19th century and early 20th century. • Mostly Chinese, Irish, German, Italians, and people eastern Europe. • Disliked by many people. • United States had a hard time absorbing the immigrants because their were so many of them.

  33. Life of a Immigrant • Looked down upon. • Lived in harsh and poor conditions. • Took the jobs that most Americans would not take. • Some immigrants ,such as the Irish, had restrictions that prevented them from having certain jobs.

  34. Things Done to Help Immigrants • Tenement houses were made to give new immigrants a place to stay until they were able to find a job. • Women provided the most help to immigrants. • English would be taught to immigrants. • Hull houses were made to provide a cleaner place to live.

  35. Sources • America, 1900. "The Progressive Era, 1896-1916." Academic American History. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.academicamerican.com/progressive/topics/progressive.html>. • "Progressive Era History Resources." SnowCrest Inc. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.snowcrest.net/jmike/progressive.html>. • "Twentieth Century Began Issues –Industrialization, Immigration, urbanization, Rise of Corporate Capitalism." Judith McDonough. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://jrmcdono.myweb.uga.edu/HIS3072RootsProgEra.htm>.

  36. Civil Rights Movement(1955-1968)

  37. What are Civil Rights? • Civil rights are personal rights guaranteed and protected by the U.S. Constitution and federal laws enacted by Congress Civil Rights include • Freedom of speech • The right to vote • Due process of law • Equal protection of law • Protection from unlawful discrimination

  38. What is the Civil Rights Movement • The Civil Rights Movement was a struggle by African Americans in the mid-1950s to late 1960s to achieve Civil Rights that the whites only attained. Those Rights include: • Equal opportunity in employment, housing, and education • Right to vote • Right of equal access to public facilities

  39. Civil Rights Organizations • Many organizations were founded for the sole purpose of helping African Americans gain their civil rights back. Some of those organizations are as follows: • CORE • COFO • SNCC • SCLC • MFDP • NAACP

  40. Jim Crow Laws • Jim Crow laws were legal and social restrictions that separated African Americans from white Americans. • Jim Crow laws prohibited African Americans from drinking from the same water fountain, eating at the same restaurants, using the same restrooms, and attending school with white Americans.

  41. The Beginning • Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas marked the beginning of the Civil Rights movement. • May 17 1954 the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional.

  42. Death of Emmett Till • While visiting his family in Mississippi Emmet Till was beaten, shot, and thrown into the Tallahatchie River for whistling at a white women in August 1955. • J.W Milam and Rob Bryant

  43. Emmett Till cont.

  44. Greensboro sit-in Four College students from N.C. A&T State University • Franklin McCain • Joseph McNeil • Ezell Blair Jr. • David Richmond • Woolworth Store on South Elm Street.

  45. Woolworth Store

  46. Birmingham Campaign • Birmingham, Alabama • A peaceful protest organized by Martin Luther King • Dr. King hoped to provoke violent reactions by whites and gain media attention.

  47. March on Washington • August 28, 1963 • 200,000 people gathered at the Lincoln Memorial • Dr. King gave his famous speech “ I have a Dream”

  48. Civil Rights Leaders • John F. Kennedy • Marcus Garvey • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • Rosa Parks • Malcolm X

  49. Sources "John Kennedy and Civil Rights." History Learning Site. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/john_kennedy_and_civil_rights.htm>. Simon, Dennis M. "The Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1963." Aug. 2002. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Change-Civ%20Rts.html>. "Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement -- March on Washington Documents." Civil Rights Movement Veterans - CORE, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.crmvet.org/docs/mowhomed.htm>.