Social Justices Sara Green Jelesha Murphy Tyner Pearson
What was Reconstruction? • “The Reconstruction Period was the period after the American Civil War when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the union. 1865-1877”
Events Leading up to Reconstruction • End of the Civil War (April 9, 1865) • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln (April 15, 1865) • Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes president
Freedmen’s Bureau • Was established in the War Dept. in March, 1865 • Provided assistance to freed slaves after the civil war • Was opposed by President Johnson • Lacked the military backing it needed but was still successful • Established black colleges and institutions • Howard University • Hampton Institute
Freedmen’s Bureau cont’d • Did not bring blacks and whites together in the South • Needed support from northern and southern politicians, which it didn’t get • Staff was cut dramatically in 1869 and the bureau ended in 1872
General O.O. Howard (Freedmen’s Bureau) • Important Freedmen’s Bureau commissioner • Civil War Hero • Sympathetic to blacks • Firmly believed that blacks should gain their rights as quickly as possible • Thought the bureau was temporary
Reconstruction Amendments • The 13th amendment was ratified in 1865 and abolished slavery • The 14th amendment was ratified in 1868 and granted all persons born in the US citizenship and equal protection under the law • The 15th amendment was ratified in 1870 and granted African American male suffrage
Civil Rights Bill • Passed by congress on April 9, 1866 over President Johnson’s veto • all persons born in the US were now citizens • Ku Klux Klan • Failed to guarantee civil rights of African Americans
Radical Republicans • Became powerful in congress after 1860 election • Abolish slavery • Believed that freed slaves should have complete equality with whites • Opposed Fugitive Slave Act and Kansas-Nebraska Act • Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner
Reconstruction Accomplishments • 1872-1873 P.B.S. Pinchback became the first black to serve as a state governor • 1874- Robert Smalls elected to Congress as a SC representative • 1873-75 forty-third congress- 6 blacks in HOR • 1875-77 forty-fourth congress- 6 blacks in HOR • Civil Rights Act enacted by congress; later found unconstitutional
Sources "African American Records: Freedmen's Bureau." National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/freedmens-bureau/>. "1866 Civil Rights Act." Spartacus Educational. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcivil1866.htm>. "Reconstruction Period." The Free Dictionary. 2011. Web. Oct.-Nov. 2011. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Reconstruction+Period>. "Reconstruction Timeline." Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/recon/chron.html>. "The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow . Jim Crow Stories . Freedmen's Bureau | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_freed.html>.
Progressive Era • The Progressive Era in American history was a time of great change and reform in the United States. • The period occurred from the 1890s to 1920 and was a series of political, social, and economical reforms focused on problems that arose due to urban growth and the Industrial Revolution.
Goals • The four main goals during the era were, • Protecting social welfare • Promoting moral improvement • Creating economic reform • Fostering efficiency
Problems • Several Problems existed among the workplace and the workers • Poverty • Unsanitary slums in American citiespoor working conditions • Child labor in factories • Corporate trusts that eliminated competition and raised prices with impunity. • Discrimination against women and ethnic minorities • Corruption in political machines
Labor Organization • In 1879 the Knights of Labor, a workers organization promoting a supportive commonwealth in opposition to the industrial system ,which started turning into a powerful social and political force. • Terence Powderly lead the Knights of Labor and with his support it grew and gained more power.
Unions • Unions were workers on strike during the progressive era demanding better working conditions & shorter working hours. • Unions began because of • Low wages • Long working hours with little breaks • Terrible working conditions • To end child labor • Unfair treatment
American Federation of Labor (AFL) • Founded by Samuel Gompers • Craft union • Mostly white men • More conservative • Wanted shorter hours, higher wages, better working conditions
Industrial Workers of the World • Founded by “Big Bill” Haywood • Industrial union, came out of Western mining strikes. • Used strikes, boycotts, songs, and education. • Rejected political parties and elections. • Believed change will come through ageneral strike and the workers will take over. • Nicknamed Wobblies
What the Wobblies wanted • Against capitalism • Revolutionary union • Workers should own industries • Work toward a national general strike • Distrust of electoral politics
Three events changed labor • 1902 Anthracite strike (TR supports miners against capital) • 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist fire (sweatshop working conditions exposed) • 1912 Bread and Roses textile strike, Lawrence, Massachusetts (high point of the IWW)
Supreme Court decisions against labor • Lochner v. New York (1905) states were not allowed to restrict work hours • Danbury Hatters case (1908) unions were not allowed to boycott • Before the Clayton Antitrust Act, striking was against the law
New Laws • Child labor laws-most states passed minimum working age laws and prohibited children from working more than 10 hours per day, but enforcement was difficult to achieve. • Muller V. Oregon (1908)-limited women's working hours • Workers received better working conditions and better wages.
Presidents of the Progressive Era • Theodore Roosevelt • William Howard Taft • Woodrow Wilson
Muckrakers • Thomas Nast • Jacob Riis • Ida B. Wells • Frank Norris • Ida Tarbell • Lincoln Steffans • Upton Sinclair
Social Reformers • Jane Adams • Margaret Sanger • Booker T. Washington • W.E.B. DuBois
Tenements • Caused by the increased number of immigrants • Homes that were poorly sanitized and disease infested • Often for the lower class • Poor ventilation • Paid $12 - $18 month for four “rooms”
Immigration • Millions of immigrants move to the United States in late 19th century and early 20th century. • Mostly Chinese, Irish, German, Italians, and people eastern Europe. • Disliked by many people. • United States had a hard time absorbing the immigrants because their were so many of them.
Life of a Immigrant • Looked down upon. • Lived in harsh and poor conditions. • Took the jobs that most Americans would not take. • Some immigrants ,such as the Irish, had restrictions that prevented them from having certain jobs.
Things Done to Help Immigrants • Tenement houses were made to give new immigrants a place to stay until they were able to find a job. • Women provided the most help to immigrants. • English would be taught to immigrants. • Hull houses were made to provide a cleaner place to live.
Sources • America, 1900. "The Progressive Era, 1896-1916." Academic American History. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.academicamerican.com/progressive/topics/progressive.html>. • "Progressive Era History Resources." SnowCrest Inc. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.snowcrest.net/jmike/progressive.html>. • "Twentieth Century Began Issues –Industrialization, Immigration, urbanization, Rise of Corporate Capitalism." Judith McDonough. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://jrmcdono.myweb.uga.edu/HIS3072RootsProgEra.htm>.
What are Civil Rights? • Civil rights are personal rights guaranteed and protected by the U.S. Constitution and federal laws enacted by Congress Civil Rights include • Freedom of speech • The right to vote • Due process of law • Equal protection of law • Protection from unlawful discrimination
What is the Civil Rights Movement • The Civil Rights Movement was a struggle by African Americans in the mid-1950s to late 1960s to achieve Civil Rights that the whites only attained. Those Rights include: • Equal opportunity in employment, housing, and education • Right to vote • Right of equal access to public facilities
Civil Rights Organizations • Many organizations were founded for the sole purpose of helping African Americans gain their civil rights back. Some of those organizations are as follows: • CORE • COFO • SNCC • SCLC • MFDP • NAACP
Jim Crow Laws • Jim Crow laws were legal and social restrictions that separated African Americans from white Americans. • Jim Crow laws prohibited African Americans from drinking from the same water fountain, eating at the same restaurants, using the same restrooms, and attending school with white Americans.
The Beginning • Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas marked the beginning of the Civil Rights movement. • May 17 1954 the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional.
Death of Emmett Till • While visiting his family in Mississippi Emmet Till was beaten, shot, and thrown into the Tallahatchie River for whistling at a white women in August 1955. • J.W Milam and Rob Bryant
Greensboro sit-in Four College students from N.C. A&T State University • Franklin McCain • Joseph McNeil • Ezell Blair Jr. • David Richmond • Woolworth Store on South Elm Street.
Birmingham Campaign • Birmingham, Alabama • A peaceful protest organized by Martin Luther King • Dr. King hoped to provoke violent reactions by whites and gain media attention.
March on Washington • August 28, 1963 • 200,000 people gathered at the Lincoln Memorial • Dr. King gave his famous speech “ I have a Dream”
Civil Rights Leaders • John F. Kennedy • Marcus Garvey • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • Rosa Parks • Malcolm X
Sources "John Kennedy and Civil Rights." History Learning Site. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/john_kennedy_and_civil_rights.htm>. Simon, Dennis M. "The Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1963." Aug. 2002. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Change-Civ%20Rts.html>. "Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement -- March on Washington Documents." Civil Rights Movement Veterans - CORE, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC. Web. 01 Nov. 2011. <http://www.crmvet.org/docs/mowhomed.htm>.