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Mikrobiologi Fak Peternakan

Mikrobiologi Fak Peternakan

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Mikrobiologi Fak Peternakan

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  1. Mikrobiologi Fak Peternakan Disiapkan oleh Prof Dr.drh.Pratiwi Ts, MS mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  2. Ragam mikrobiologi Sub mikroscopis mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  3. Bacteria • The smallest cells • Visible only with the aid of a microscope • The smallest bacteria: Chlamydia and Rickettsia-0.1-0.2 micrometer • Larger bacteria: many microns in length mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  4. Koch’s Postulates: Set of guidelines which provides a definite correlation between the pathogen and the associated disease it cause in it’s host I. The same microorganism must be present in every case of the disease II. The pathogen must be isolated and retrieved from the diseased host, grown in pure culture and identified III. The same disease must be produced when the pathogen from pure culture is introduced into a healthy host IV. The pathogen must be recovered from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism (?) mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

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  6. Introduction: • Microorganisms – several classes of living beings • Based on the organization of their cellular structures, all living cells can be divided into two groups: eukaryotic and prokaryotic • Eukaryoticcell types - Animals, plants, fungi, protozoans, and algae • Prokaryotic cell types - bacteria & blue green algae Dr Ekta Chourasia

  7. SIZE OF BACTERIA • Unit for measurement : Micron or micrometer,μm: 1μm=10-3mm • Size: Varies with kinds of bacteria, and also related to their age and external environment. • Bacteria of medical importance • 0.2 – 1.5 µm in diameter • 3 – 5 µm in length mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  8. Ukuran dan morphologi mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  9. Methods Microscope • Light Microscope • Electron Microscope • Darkfield Microscope • Phase Contrast Microscope • Fluorescence Microscope • Cofocal Microscope) Staining Methods • Simple staining; • Differential staining ( Gram stain, Acid-fast stain), • Special staining( Negative stain, Spore stain, Flagella stain) mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  10. Microscopic measurement • Cocci: sphere, 1μm • Bacilli: rods , 0.5-1 μm in width -3 μm in length • Spiral bacteria: 1~3 μm in length and 0.3-0.6 μm in width mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  11. Structure of Bacteria Particular structures capsule flagella pili spore mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  12. Essential structures cell wall cell membrane Cytoplasm nuclear material mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  13. Shape of Bacteria • Cocci – spherical/ oval shaped major groups • Bacilli – rod shaped • Vibrios – comma shaped • Spirilla – rigid spiral forms • Spirochetes – flexible spiral forms • Actinomycetes – branching filamentous bacteria • Mycoplasmas – lack cell wall mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  14. Arrangement of bacteria: Cocci Coccus Cocci in pair – Diplococcus Tetrad – groups of four Cocci in chain - Streptococci Sarcina – groups of eight Cocci in cluster - Staphylococci Dr Ekta Chourasia

  15. Bacterial shape Sperical (coccus) Rod-shaped Spiral Spiral or spirillum Helix or spirochete mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  16. Bacterial arrangement Diplococcus Chains: streptococcus Clusters: staphylococcus Packets of eight:sarcina mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  17. Other shapes of bacteria Comma shaped Spirilla Spirochetes Dr Ekta Chourasia

  18. Arrangement of bacteria: Bacilli Dr Ekta Chourasia

  19. Shape • Spherical: coccus (Staphyloccus) • Rod-shaped: bacillus (Escherichia) • Snakelike: spirillum (Treponema) • Branched filamentous (Nocardia and Actinomyces) ( Clusters: diplococcus (Neisseria) chains (Streptococcus) grapelike (Staphylococcus) ) mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  20. Anatomy of A Bacterial Cell • Outer layer – two components: • Rigid cell wall • Cytoplasmic (Cell/ Plasma) membrane – present beneath cell wall • Cytoplasm – cytoplasmic inclusions, ribosomes, mesosomes and nucleus • Additional structures – plasmid, slime layer, capsule, flagella, fimbriae (pili), spores Dr Ekta Chourasia

  21. Staining • Simple • Differential: Gram and Acid-fast stain Gram-stain: cell wall Acid fast stain: Mycobacterium • Negative stain: Indian ink (capsule) • Special staining mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  22. Flagellum Nucleoid Cell membrane Cell wall Gram + Pili Gram - Granule Capsule Cell (inner) membrane Outer membrane Ribosomes Cell wall 1884: Christian Gram: First publication for the Gram stain method) Editor's note: I would like to testify that I have found the Gram method to be one of the best and for many cases the best method which I have ever used for staining Schizomycetes. Gram, C. 1884. Ueber die isolirte Farbung der Schizomyceten in SchnittÄund Trockenpraparaten. Fortschritte der Medicin, Vol. 2, pages 185-189. mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

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  24. Staining Methods • Simple staining; • Differential staining ( Gram stain, Acid-fast stain), • Special staining( Negative stain, Spore stain, Flagella stain) mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  25. Gram stain • Two major classes of bacteria are distinguished: • Gram-positive and • Gram-negative bacteria • Except: • Mycobacteria (waxy outer shell , distinguished by acid fast stain) • Mycoplasmas(no peptidoglycan) mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

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  28. Bacterial growth curve • Lag phase • Exponential phase • Stationary phase • Death phase mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

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  31. Bacterial growth • Bacterial replication • Two equivalent daughter cells • Binary fission (Escherichia coli: 20 minutes Mycobacterium much slower: 12-24h) mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  32. 35 kinds of infectious diseases class one: plague, cholera class two: viral hepatitis, bacillary dysentery and intestinal amebiasis, typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, AIDS, gonorrhea , avariosis, poliomyelitis, measles, pertussis, diphtheria, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, scarler fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, rabies, leptospirosis, brucellosis, anthrax, typhus, kala-azar, epidemic encephalitis B, malaria, dengue fever, lung tuberculosis, fetal tetanus class three:schistosomiasis , filariasis, hydatid disease, leprosy , influenza, mumps, rubella, infectious dysentery, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  33. Spores • Resistant to harsh conditions • (loss of nutritional requirement, dessication, intense heat, radiation and attack by most enzymes and chemical agents) • 6-8 hours mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  34. Kinds of spores • Endospore: Bacillus subtilis • Terminal endospore: Clostridium tetani ‘drumstick’ • Subterminal: Clostridium botulinum mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  35. Endospores (spores) • Identification of Bacteria • Pathogenesis • Resistance mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  36. Endospores (spores) • Dormant cell • Resistant to adverse conditions • - high temperatures • - organic solvents • Produced when starved • Contain calcium dipicolinate • DPA, Dipicolinic acid • Bacillus and Clostridium mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

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  38. Shape & position of bacterial spore Oval central Non bulging Spherical central Oval sub terminal Oval sub terminal Bulging Oval terminal Spherical terminal Free spore Dr Ekta Chourasia

  39. Metabolism • Catabolism: substrate breakdown and conversation into usable energy • Anabolism: synthesis of cellular constituents (cell wall, proteins,fatty acids, nucleic acids mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

  40. Bacterial growth • Bacterial replication • Two equivalent daughter cells • Binary fission (Escherichia coli: 20 minutes Mycobacterium much slower: 12-24h) mikro PTS - pet - 2 2014

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