The Mad Matter What is matter all about?
Matter Our entire physical world is made of matter. Matter is anything that occupies space andhas mass.
Physical and Chemical Changes • A physical change occurs when the substance changes state but does not change its chemical composition. • The form or appearance has changed, but the properties of that substance are the same (i.e. it has the same melting point, boiling point, chemical composition, etc.)
Chemical changes • A chemical change occurs when a substance changes into something new. • This occurs due to heating, chemical reaction, etc. You can tell a chemical change has occurred if the density, melting point or freezing point of the original substance changes. • Many common signs of a chemical change can be seen (bubbles forming, mass changed, color change etc). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QL7V3L3dfDM
States of Matter We can classify matter into 3 broad categories (there’s a fourth) called states of matter—solids, liquids, and gasses. • A solid has a definite shape and volume. • A liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape. • A gas has neither adefinite volume nor shape. Gas Liquid
Attractive Forces or the Kinetic Theory of Matter • In a solid, the attraction between particles is strong so the matter holds its shape. • In a liquid, the particles are able to move past each other and slide around. • In a gas, the attraction between particles is so weak that they fly in every direction filling the container that they are held. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnBoQe2rsgo&feature=related
We all Know About the Three States of Matter but there is 1 more • Plasma • What are some examples of plasma? -- Lightning -- Auroras -- Stars -- The fireball made by a nuclear weapon
Plasma • Plasma is by far the most common form of matter. Plasma in the stars and in the tenuous space between them makes up over 99% of the visible universe and perhaps most of that which is not visible. • It is a gas with ionized particles throughout it.
Plasma temperatures and densities range from relatively cool and tenuous (like aurora) to very hot and dense (like the central core of a star). Ordinary solids, liquids, and gases are both electrically neutral and too cool or dense to be in a plasma state. • The word "PLASMA" was first applied to ionized gas by Dr. Irving Langmuir, an American chemist and physicist, in 1929. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VkeSI_B5Ljc
Is it a Mixture or a Pure Substance? • Pure substance:matter that has a fixed (constant) composition and unique properties. Contains only 1 type element or compound; homogeneous • Mixture: Contains at least 2 PHYSICALLY combined compounds; can be homogeneous or heterogeneous
Pure Substances • Means same throughout 1) element: only 1 type of atom 2) compound: 2 or more CHEMICALLY combined elements (not easily separated from each other) ex: water, CO2
Mixtures • A mixture contains two or more substances. There are two types of mixtures: • Homogenous: “homo” same or alike • Heterogeneous: “hetero” different Particle size distinguishes homogeneous solutions from other heterogeneous mixtures.
Heterogeneous Mixtures • Aheterogeneous mixture has large clumps of particles that don’t fully separate and doesn’t get intermixed with the other substance. • The difference in particles can be seen in the texture, color, shape and size.
Separating the Heterogeneous mixture • One uses Physical Characteristic to separate out the components of a heterogeneous mixture • Separating mechanical mixtures is usually quite simple. • The difference in color, shape and texture can easily be seen. • Most of us can usually pick out the cashews from a bowl of mixed nuts and gravy separators can easily skim off oil.
Homogeneous Mixture • A homogeneous mixture has two substances where particles the size of atoms and molecules are blended completely. (most mixed) To the eye, the mixture appears to be pure substance. When the particles stay intermixed and don’t settle into layers we call the homogeneous mixture a solution.
Solutions This pill is being dissolved in water. The pill is called the solute because it is the substance being dissolved. The water is called the solvent (dissolver) because it is the substance that is doing the dissolving. In general, the solvent is in much higher quantity than the solute. These are the two main parts of a solution.