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Exam One Material

Exam One Material

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Exam One Material

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  1. Exam One Material Chapters 1 - 4

  2. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology • Anatomy • Physiology • Study of the _ • Subdivisions based on organ systems(e.g., renal or cardiovascular physiology) • Often focuses on _ • Body's abilities depend on chemical reactions in individual cells

  3. Principle of Complementarity • Anatomy and physiology are inseparable • What a structure can do depends on its specific form

  4. Levels of Structural Organization • Atoms and molecules (chapter 2); and organelles (chapter 3) • Cells (chapter 3) • Groups of similar cells (chapter 4) • Contains two or more types of tissues • Organs that work closely together • All organ systems

  5. Interdependence of Body Cells • Humans are multicellular • To function, must keep individual cells alive • All cells depend on _ • All body functions spread among different organ systems • Organ systems cooperate to maintain life

  6. Homeostasis • Homeostasis • A dynamic state of equilibrium • Maintained by contributions of all organ systems

  7. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms • Involve continuous _____________________________________of all variables • ____________________________________ necessary for monitoring and regulation • Functions of nervous and endocrine systems • Nervous and endocrine systems accomplish communication via _

  8. Components of a Control Mechanism • Monitors environment • Responds to stimuli • Determines set point at which variable is maintained • Receives input from receptor • Determines appropriate response • Receives output from control center • Provides the means to respond • Response either reduces (negative feedback) or enhances stimulus (positive feedback)

  9. Negative Feedback • Most feedback mechanisms in body • Response _ • Variable changes in opposite direction of initial change • Examples • Regulation of body temperature • Regulation of blood volume by ADH

  10. Positive Feedback • Response enhances or exaggerates original stimulus • May exhibit a _ • Usually controls _____________________________________ that do not require continuous adjustment • Enhancement of labor contractions by _ • Platelet plug formation _

  11. Homeostatic Imbalance • Disturbance of homeostasis • Contributes to changes associated with _ • Control systems less efficient • If negative feedback mechanisms overwhelmed

  12. Anatomical Position • Standard anatomical body position • Palms facing forward • Always use directional terms as if body is in anatomical position • Right and left refer to body being viewed, not those of observer

  13. Regional Terms • Two major divisions of body • Head, neck, and trunk • Limbs • Regional terms designate specific areas within body divisions

  14. Body Planes • Three most common • Lie at right angles to each other • Sagittal plane • Frontal (coronal) plane • Transverse (horizontal) plane

  15. Sagittal Plane • Sagittal plane • Divides body _ • Produces a sagittal section if cut along this plane • Midsagittal (median) plane • Not on midline

  16. Body Planes • Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts • Produces a frontal or _

  17. Body Planes • Transverse (horizontal) plane • Divides body horizontally (90° to vertical plane) _ • Produces a _ • Oblique section • Result of cuts at angle other than 90° to vertical plane

  18. Body Cavities • _____________________________ of internal body cavities • Provide different degrees of protection to organs

  19. Dorsal Body Cavity • Protects nervous system • Two subdivisions: • Cranial cavity • Vertebral cavity

  20. Ventral Body Cavity • Houses _ • Two subdivisions (___________________________________) • Thoracic cavity • Abdominopelvic cavity

  21. Ventral Body Cavity • Thoracic cavity subdivisions • Two _ • Each houses _ • Contains pericardial cavity • Surrounds _ • Pericardial cavity

  22. Ventral Body Cavity • Abdominopelvic cavity subdivisions • Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver • Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

  23. Membranes in Ventral Body Cavity • Serous membrane or _ • Parietal serosa lines _ • Visceral serosa covers _ • Layers separated by slit-like cavity filled _ • Fluid secreted by both layers of membrane

  24. Serous Membranes • Named for specific cavity and organs with which associated • Each has parietal and visceral layers • Pericardium • Lungs • Abdominopelvic cavity

  25. Other Body Cavities • Exposed to environment • Nasal cavity • Orbital cavities • Not exposed to environment

  26. Matter • Matter—anything that has mass and occupies space • Weight—pull of gravity on mass • 3 states of matter • Solid— • Liquid— • Gas— changeable shape and volume

  27. Composition of Matter: Elements • Elements • Matter is composed of elements • Elements cannot be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods • Each has unique properties • Detectable with our senses, or are measurable • How atoms interact (bond) with one another

  28. Composition of Matter • Atoms • Give each element its physical & chemical properties • Smallest particles of an element with properties of that element • One- or two-letter chemical shorthand for each element

  29. Atomic Structure • Atoms are composed of subatomic particles • Protons, neutrons, electrons • Protons and neutrons _ • Electrons orbit nucleus _

  30. Atomic Structure: The Nucleus • Almost entire mass of the atom • Neutrons • Mass = 1 atomic mass unit (amu) • Protons • Mass = 1 amu

  31. Atomic Structure: Electrons • Electrons in orbitals within electron cloud • 1/2000 the mass of a proton (0 amu) • Number of protons and electrons _

  32. Models of the Atom • Planetary model • Incorrectly depicts fixed circular electron paths

  33. Models of the Atom • current model used by chemists • an electron cloud • Useful for predicting chemical behavior of atoms

  34. Identifying Elements • Different elements contain _ • Hydrogen has 1 proton, 0 neutrons, and 1 electron • Lithium has 3 protons, 4 neutrons, and 3 electrons

  35. Atomic Number and Mass Number • Atomic number = • Mass number • Total number of _ • Total mass of atom

  36. Isotopes and Atomic Weight • Isotopes • Structural variations of atoms • Differ in the number of _ • Atomic numbers same; mass numbers different

  37. Isotopes and Atomic Weight • Atomic weight • ___________________________ of mass numbers (relative weights) _

  38. Combining Matter: Molecules and Compounds • Most atoms chemically combined with other atoms to form molecules and compounds • Two or more atoms bonded together • Can be the _ • Or _ • Smallest particle of a compound with specific characteristics of the compound • Compound • Two or more different kinds of atoms bonded together • C6H12O6, but not H2

  39. Mixtures • Most matter exists as mixtures • Two or more components _ • Three types of mixtures

  40. Types of Mixtures: Solutions • Homogeneous mixtures • Most are true solutions in body • Gases, liquids, or solids dissolved in water • Usually transparent, e.g., atmospheric air or saline solution • Solvent • Substance present in greatest amount • Present in smaller amounts • Ex. If glucose is dissolved in blood, glucose is solute; blood is solvent

  41. Colloids and Suspensions • Colloids • a substance _ • emulsions • Heterogeneous mixtures • cytosol • Other examples: • Fog (water dispersed in air) • Smoke (burned particulates suspended in air) • Milk (fats dispersed in water)

  42. Colloids and Suspensions • Suspensions • Heterogeneous mixtures • Large, _ • Unlike colloids which don’t separate • Other examples • Muddy water • Flour/water

  43. Mixtures versus Compounds • Mixtures • _________________________________________ between components • Can be separated by physical means, such as _ • Compounds • Can be separated only by breaking bonds

  44. Chemical Bonds • Chemical bonds are ______________________________________ between electrons of reacting atoms • Electrons can occupy up to seven electron shells (energy levels) around nucleus • Electrons in _ • Have most potential energy • Are _ • Octet rule (rule of eights) • Except for the first shell (full with ___________________________) atoms interact to have eight electrons in their valence shell

  45. Chemically Inert Elements • Valence shell fully occupied or contains eight electrons • Noble gases • Helium • Neon • Argon • Krypton • Xenon • Radon

  46. Chemically Reactive Elements • Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons (form bonds) with other atoms to achieve stability

  47. Types of Chemical Bonds • Three major types

  48. Ionic Bonds • Ions • Atom gains or loses electrons and becomes charged • Transferof valence shell electrons from one atom to another forms ions • One becomes an _ • Atom that gained one or more electrons • One becomes a _ • Atom that lost one or more electrons • Attraction of opposite charges results in an ionic bond

  49. Ionic Compounds • Most ionic compounds are _ • When dry salts form __________________________ instead of individual molecules • Example is NaCl (sodium chloride)

  50. Covalent Bonds • Formed by sharing of _ • Allows each atom to fill its valence shell _