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Chapter 10 1995 - 2001

Chapter 10 1995 - 2001

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Chapter 10 1995 - 2001

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  1. Chapter 101995 - 2001 Internet Time

  2. 1995 - 2001 • Netscape + Internet • Microsoft + Lawsuits • UNIX – GNU + LINUX • Dot com

  3. Microsoft and Apple • 1984 Mac TV Commercial • Not IBM, but Microsoft problem • Early days, Apple & MS worked together • BASIC for Apple • Mac • Magnificent interface; no applications • MacPaint and MacWrite • MS Multiplan – MS spreadsheet • 1982 – MS had agreed to develop software for Mac • 1985 – MS Excel for Mac • MS programmers learned to program for GUI • Charles Simonyi, Xerox PARC, WP Bravo for Alto

  4. In the meantime… • MS wanted Mac interface for 8086 • Separate products, common interface • MS reputation not good • Lotus 1-2-3, WordPerfect were better • Lotus was developing suites • Symphony for PC, Jazz for Mac • Other sw being developed

  5. How did MS beat Apple? 1984 • MS, Intel licensed products • Result: clones • Variety and less cost • Windows GUI • MS Office – 80% of Mac capability at much lower price • 1995: MS/Intel became standard

  6. Microsoft Lawsuit • Anti-Trust / Monopoly – like IBM • Filed 1997 – settled November 2001 • Several states & European union refused to go along – pending • As with IBM, will advances in technology negate court actions?

  7. SW Development at MS • Charles Simonyi, Hungary • 1970’s – Xerox PARC – BRAVO – WYSIWYG WP • “Hungarian” Programming • To manage large, complex projects & large teams • All code for a project submitted to central file at end of day; compiled into a daily “build” • If your part caused crash, you had to fix it • “Build” was basis for next day’s work • Once functional, team had to use it

  8. SW Development at MS (cont.) MS Results: • No social or family life, eating from vending machines, “death march” to fix build • Steady stream of “improved” versions of Windows & an ever expanding suite of applications • MS had purchased many applications then rewrote for Windows • MS Office

  9. Internet Explorer & Legal Problems • Bundled Internet Explorer with Windows • Bought license for Spyglass, a browser • A descendent of Mosaic • Prevented Spyglass from selling a Windows version of the browser • Internet Explorer 4.0 released 1997 • Netscape & Justice Department claimed “tight integration” was contrary to anti-trust laws

  10. Legal Precedent • “Look and Feel” • 1987: Lotus vs. Paperback S.W. • Copied “look & feel” → illegal • FUD – “Fear, Uncertainty, & Doubt” • 1960’s: Data General vs. IBM • Announced IBM 360 just to “scare” customers of Data General

  11. Legal Precedent (cont.) • Tie-In • Well-established in anti-trust legislation • “Tie-in” required customer to purchase another product to get desired one

  12. Charges Against MS • 1990: FTC investigated agreements with IBM – OS/2 development • 1990: FTC – MS gained access to a prototype pen-based computer by GO – MS announced at a trade show it would integrate pen-based input into Windows • Never did; GO folded (FUD)

  13. Charges Against MS • 1994: Justice Department – bundling products into Windows – threats only • Consent Decree: would not “tie” sales of one product to another (i.e. require purchase of another product) • Would also release API details to other SW developers

  14. Charges Against MS • By 1995 – customers seldom “bought” Windows • Came on the computer • Made distribution costs lower • Consent Decree: MS could NOT require h.w. company to install Windows – but did charge per chip; not per install • 1995 – MS announced planned purchased if Intuit (Quicken), one of few application companies with a significant market share • Dropped when Justice Department objected • MS Programmers had learned much about product

  15. Charges Against MS • 1997: Internet Explorer 4.0 – bundled • Netscape claimed a MS “tie-in” • 1994 – Netscape posted free Navigator on Web (individuals) • Business paid small fee • “Lock-in” customers to pay for additional products • Their stock soared • 1996 – AOL chose IE over Navigator • Violated consent decree – “tie in” • Since free – cutoff Netscape’s revenue

  16. 1998: “Look & Feel” of Mac in Windows 2.0 Apple had licensed interface for v. 1.0 More than year, dropped, both needed cooperation Charges Against MS

  17. Microsoft Defense??? • 1997: Steve Ballmer • “to heck with Janet Reno” • 1998: Gates deposition • nervous & evasive • MS internal e-mails • very embarrassing

  18. The Prosecution • Judge Thomas P. Jackson: • In an interview stated prejudice against MS • Caused most of his judgment overturned in 2001 • Was removed from case

  19. MS and Networking • 1995: Introduced MSN – proprietary n.w. • 1996: Exchange – groupware communications system • Outlook: e-mail • Free Services • Yahoo, Hotmail – portals • 1997: MS bought Hotmail - $400 million • Runs on UNIX • MS presence on Web grows

  20. ARPANET and Internet William Wulf, May 1993: “I don’t think any of us know where this is going anymore, … but there’s something exciting happening, and it’s big.” -Former DEC Engineer -NSF in late 1980’s

  21. Paul Ceruzzi • November 1997 • Shaquille O’Neal billboard • www.Shaq.com • Internet was now part of entertainment, consumer spending, and popular culture • Mainstream America

  22. Acceptable Use Policy – NSF - 1990 • NSFnet: 1988 – 1995 • “NSF backbone services are provided to support open research & education in and among US research and instructional institutions, plus research arms of for-profit firms when engaged in open scholarly communication & research. Use for other purposes is not acceptable.”

  23. Acceptable Use Policy – NSF – 1990 • Allowed “announcements of new products or activities… but not advertising of any kind” • Allowed “communication incidental to otherwise acceptable use, except for illegal or specifically unacceptable use” • Unacceptable: “Extensive use for private or personal use”

  24. Growth of Internet • By 1992 – restrictions lifted • Jan. 1992 – one trillion bytes/month • Jan. 1994 – 10 trillion bytes/month • 1995 – NSF net “dissolved” • Structure for commercialization was already there

  25. Internet Legislation • 1999: Al Gore – CNN interview “… took the initiative in creating the Internet.” • 1992: Congressman Rick Boucher, Va. • Amendment to support networks for purposes other than research & education • When signed by President Bush (#1) – ended “acceptable use policy”

  26. Congress’ Vision of Internet • Summary pg. 322 • Opposite of what happened • High-speed government n.w. for research • Researchers would pay for use • Telecommunications companies would build and charge

  27. Java • Bill Joy – SUN • Need a new language • Advances of C++, with low-level of C or assembly • 1991: James Gosling at SUN • Oak – renamed Java • Announced March 1995

  28. Java #2 • Could run on almost any computer • Web designers: animation, movement, interactivity • “Write once – Run anywhere” • UCSD – p-system – 1980’s • Pascal based • 2 stage translation – failed • Now HW was faster

  29. Java Hype • Media: way to break MS hold on personal computing • MS got license from SUN • Embraced by those wanting to sell via Internet

  30. Early dot.com Sites • Amazon – 1995 • Jeff Bezos • 1995 – 100 orders/day • 2000 – 100 orders/minute • Dec. 99 – Bezos Times Person of Year • eBay – 1995 • Pierre Omidyar • 2001 – 7 million on-going auctions

  31. Policing the Internet • Amazon • Customers wrote book reviews • eBay • Feedback on buyers & sellers • Individuals provided control & screening service that the company could not

  32. Search Engines & Portals • Sites to help users navigate the web • 1994 – Yahoo! – Filo & Yang • Students at Stanford • Key-word index • Alta Vista – early search engine • Google • Sergei Brin & Larry Page • Ranks based on other links

  33. Web Critics • Tim Berners-Lee • Not tailored for personal use • Doug Englebart, Ted Nelson • Why must we all use http? • Web is one-way, shouldn’t be • Scientific use has been forgotten

  34. Tragedy of the Commons • 1968 – Garrett Hardin, biologist • Contrasts benefits to individuals vs. damage to common resource • Only regulation will prevent tragedy • Internet hasn’t come close to tragedy • Worms, viruses, Y2K, 9-11,dot.com collapse • Pollution – pop-ups, porn, spam

  35. Linux • Linus Torvalds – Finland – born 1969 • 1991 – goal to write PC version of UNIX • Studied Minix – Tannenbaum’s version • Discussion Group • Asked for likes/dislikes of Minix • Posted Linux in 1992 • Continued to grow in size & quality due to contributions of many

  36. GNU Richard Stallman, MIT • GCC – GNU C Complier • Used for Linux • Asked for public support for free GNU software system

  37. GNU General Public License • Place GNU in public domain • All modifications must also be placed in public domain • SW using it must be in public domain • Can sell it, though • MS Criticism: not the “American way” of free enterprise

  38. Chapter 101995 - 2001 Internet Time