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Measuring and Managing Economic Exposure

Measuring and Managing Economic Exposure. Chapter 11. PART I. FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK AND ECONOMIC EXPOSURE. I. FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK Economic exposure focuses on the impact of currency fluctuations on firm’s value.

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Measuring and Managing Economic Exposure

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  1. Measuring and Managing Economic Exposure Chapter 11

  2. PART I.FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK AND ECONOMIC EXPOSURE • I. FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK • Economic exposure focuses on theimpact of currency fluctuations onfirm’s value. • Changes in PV of the firm (long term) as a result of changes in the exchange rate • Expectations about the fluctuation must beincorporated in all decisions ofthe firm.

  3. FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK AND ECONOMIC EXPOSURE • Definitions: • a.Accounting exposure (past) • impact on firm’s balance sheet • b.Economic exposure • Transaction (contractual, present/future, short term) • Operating (future, longterm)

  4. FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK AND ECONOMIC EXPOSURE • Real Exchange Rates and Risk • Nominal vs real exchange rates • Real rate has been adjusted forprice changes, and reflect the relative purchasing powers. • Real rate changes may result inHobson’s Choice: (“We don’t likeeither choice!”) • When faced with a change in real value, • do you keep price constant (changing sales) • do you change prices (changeprofits)

  5. FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK AND ECONOMIC EXPOSURE • The economic impact of acurrency change depends on the offset by the difference in inflation rates or the real exchange rate. • It is the relative price changesthat ultimately determine a firm’s long-run exposure.

  6. PART II.THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGES • A. Transaction exposure • On-balance sheet (existingcontracts) • Off-balance sheet (contracts in the future, leases, loan repayments) • Assumption (flawed) • LC costs and revenues remain constant

  7. THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGES • B. Operating Exposure : real rate change • leading to changes in relative prices and • demand for your and for competitors’ • products. • Based on pricing flexibility which depends on elasticity of demand. • Product differentiation • Substitution of inputs and shifting production

  8. THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGES • II. SUMMARY • The sector of the economy in which the firm operates; • The sources of the firm’s inputs; • Fluctuations in the real exchange rate • delineate the firm’s true economic exposure.

  9. PART III.IDENTIFYING ECONOMIC EXPOSURE • I. CASE STUDIES OF ECONOMIC EXPOSURE • A. APEN SKIING COMPANY • 1. Firm’s exchange rate risk affected • its sales revenues. • 2. Although there was no translation • risk, the global market with its exchange rate risk and competitors impacted market demand.

  10. IDENTIFYING ECONOMIC EXPOSURE • B. PETROLEOS MEXICANOS (PEMEX) • 1. The firm’s exchange rate risk • affected cost but not revenues. • 2. Economic impact • a. Revenues: none ($ pricing) • b. Costs: decreased • c. Net effect: increased US$ flows

  11. IDENTIFYING ECONOMIC EXPOSURE • C. TOYOTA MOTOR COMPANY • 1. Exchange rate risk affected BOTH • revenues and costs. • 2. Trying to decrease exposure may result in Flow back effect: • previously exported goods return • with increased domestic competition and lower profit margins • domestically

  12. PART IV.CALCULATING ECONOMIC EXPOSURE • A quantitative assessment of economic exposure depends on underlying assumptions concerning: • future cash flows; • sensitivity to exchange rate changes. • Case for Spectrum Manufacturing AB

  13. PART V.AN OPERATING MEASURE OF EXCHANGE RISK • A workable approach can be • Regression Analysis • Variables: • changes in parent’s cashflows • Average nominal exchangerate change

  14. AN OPERATING MEASURE OF EXCHANGE RISK • Output measures: • Estimated Beta coefficient : measures the association of changes in cash flows to exchange rate changes. • the higher the percentage change of cash flow to changes in exchange rates, the greater the economic exposure (higher beta values).

  15. PART VI.MANAGING OPERATING EXPOSURE • Operating exposure management requires long-term operating adjustments. • Adjustments/decisions are related to marketing, production and finance.

  16. MANAGING OPERATING EXPOSURE • II. Marketing Management Adjustments • A. Market Selection • use pricing advantage to carve out market share (domestic or foreign)

  17. MANAGING OPERATING EXPOSURE • B. Pricing strategy: • 1. If HC value falls, exporter gains competitive advantage by increasing unit profitability and/or market share. • 2.The higher price elasticity of demand, the more currency risk the firm faces by product subsitution. • 3. Following HC depreciation, local firm may have much more freedom in its pricing.

  18. MANAGING OPERATING EXPOSURE • C. Product Strategy • exchange rate changes may alter • 1. The timing of new product introductions/deletions • 2. Product innovation • (for decreasing elasticity)

  19. MANAGING OPERATING EXPOSURE • III. Product Management Adjustments • A. Input mix • B. Shift production among plants • C. Plant location • D. Raising productivity

  20. MANAGING OPERATING EXPOSURE • IV. Planning For Exchange-Rate Changes • With better planning and morecompetitive options, firms can change strategies substantiallybefore the impact of an currency change makes itself felt. • Implication: compaction of adjustment period following an exchange-rate change.

  21. MANAGING OPERATING EXPOSURE • Financial Management of ExchangeRate Risk: Financial manager’s Role in Marketing and Production • Provide local manager with forecasts of inflation and exchangerate changes • Identify and focus on competitive exposure

  22. MANAGING OPERATING EXPOSURE • Design the evaluation criteria so that operating managers neitherrewarded or penalized forunexpected exchange-ratechanges. • Estimate and hedge the operatingexposure after adjustments made. • Currency matching (asset-liability, casf flow)

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