The Higher Education Equality Poster Campaign • Each poster is 10” by 7.5” • Print six to a page and hand out as squares • Put your organization contact info on reverse • Print onto business cards • Put on buttons and hand them out • Make into stickers • Leave on department front desks
College and University enrollment in the USA 1980-2010 • In the 1970’s college enrollment was on the rise • 1983-1985 enrollment fell from 10.8-10.6 million enrolled in the year • 1998 rose to 12.5 million • 2010 rose to 17.1 million • 1980’s post-bachelor enrollment at 1.6 million • 2010 post-bachelor enrollment rose to 2.8 million SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Digest of Education Statistics, 2011 (NCES 2012-001), Chapter 3 .
Age Distribution in Higher Education in the USA 2000-2010 • 2000-2010 students over age 25 up 42% • 2010-2020 expect to see students over 25 up 20% • 2000-2010 students under age 25 up 34% • 2010-2020 expect to see students under 25 up 11% Students are getting older! Look for more parents and part time students! There will be fewer traditional dorm and frat aged students on campus in the years to come! SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Digest of Education Statistics, 2011 (NCES 2012-001), Chapter 3 .
Diversity in Higher Education in the USA 1976-2010 • Hispanic students rose from 3% to 13% • Asian/Pacific Islander students rose from 2% to 6% • Black students rose from 9% to 14% • White students fell from 83%-61% percent • Race/ethnicity is not reported for nonresident aliens, who rose from 2% to 3% of total enrollment SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Digest of Education Statistics, 2011 (NCES 2012-001), Chapter 3 .
Gender Divide in Higher Education & Employment in the USA 1976-2010 Graduation 1999-2010 Employment 1979-2009 1979 women made 62% of a mans pay for the same work 2005-2006 women made 81% what males made. 2009 women made 93% in the 16-24 year old category. 2009 women made 89% in the 25-34 year old category. 2009 women made 75% in the 35+ category. • Women earned 60-62% of associates degrees awarded • Women earned 57-58% of bachelors degrees awarded • Women’s masters rose from 58-60% of all masters awarded • Women’s doctorates rose from 45 -52% of all doctorates awarded • 2009-2010 Within each racial/ethnic group, women earned the majority of degrees at all levels. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012 (NCES 2012-045), Indicator 47.Detp of Labor data is from the Current Population Survey. To learn more, see Highlights of Women’s Earnings in 2009, BLS Report 1025, June 2010.
Diversity in Higher Education in the USA Undergrads 1976-2010 Enrollment 1976-2010 Bachelor Graduation 2004 69% of Asian/Pacific Islander students graduate within 6 yr period 62% of White students graduate within 6 yr period 50% of Hispanics graduate within 6 yr period 39% of Black stuents graduate within 6 yr period 39% of American Indian/Alaska Natives graduate within 6 yr period first-time, full-time students Not all students require the full 6 years • Hispanic student enrollment rose from 3% to 13% • Asian/Pacific Islander student enrollment rose from 2% to 6% • Black student enrollment rose from 9% to 14% • White student enrollment fell from 83%-61% percent • Race/ethnicity is not reported for nonresident aliens, who rose from 2% to 3% of total enrollment SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012 (NCES 2012-045), Indicator 47.Digest of Education Statistics, 2011 (NCES 2012-001), Chapter 3 .
Black Student Graduation Rates in the USA 2009-2010 • Black students earned 14% of Associates (up from 11% 2000) • Black students earned 10% of Bachelors (up from 9% in 2000) • Black students earned 12% of Masters (up from 9% in 2000) • Other ethnicities counted were White, Native, Hispanic and Asian • Black figures are similar to Hispanic, Native are lowest, Asian highest SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012 (NCES 2012-045), Indicator 47.U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2012-045), Indicator 45.
Hispanic Student Graduation Rates in the USA 2009-2010 • Hispanic students earned 13% of Associates (up from 9% 2000) • Hispanic students earned 9% of Bachelors (up from 6% in 2000) • Hispanic students earned 7% of Masters (up from 5% in 2000) • Other ethnicities counted were White, Native, Hispanic and Asian • Hispanic are similar to Black, Native are lower, Asian highest SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012 (NCES 2012-045), Indicator 47.U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2012-045), Indicator 45.
College expenditure per undergrad student in the USA 2009-2010 • These are per capita figures. These are not broken down by level of study including associates, bachelor, masters or doctorate. • These include all salaries, research, public service expenses, academic support, student services, institutional support, operation and maintenance, scholarships, fellowships, auxiliary businesses, hospitals and interest. Q: Do these figures assume students use all of these services. Q: How does this impact, tuition, the portion students pay toward education? Q: Do students pay for services they don’t use or are they covered by the institution? Q: Does tuition reflect the prices of core services? • $26,200 total expenditures per full time student per year across the nation and across institutional type • $35, 700 in public 4 year colleges • $11, 900 in public 2 year colleges • $46, 100 in private, 4 year, non-profit colleges • $19, 000 in private, 2 year, non-profit colleges • $12, 400 at private for profit colleges (both 2 and 4 year) • 2009-2010 was lower than 2008-2009 • 2009-2010 was only 1% higher than 2003-2004 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Digest of Education Statistics, 2011 (NCES 2012-001), Table 377.
Does education in America get you as much as it does in other G8 countries? SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-8 Countries: 2009 (NCES 2009-039).
True costs of one year of college at public 4 yr Institutes of Higher Ed. in the USA • Average cost of education per student reported by institutes $35,000 (2009-10). This includes all salaries, research, public service expenses, academic support, student services, institutional support, operation and maintenance, scholarships, fellowships, auxiliary businesses, hospitals and interest. • Average tuition $13,6000 per student (2010-2011) • 62% of full time and 43.5% of part time undergrads received grants (2007-2008) • Average grants were $4,900 for full time and $2,700 for part time (2007-2008) • 53% of full time and 29.2% of part time undergrads received student loans (2007-2008) • The average student loan was $7,100 for full time and $6, 100 for part time (2007-2008) • 13.5% of full time undergrads and 3.5% of part time received work study (2007-2008) • The average work study wages are a meager $2, 300 for full time and $2,700 for part time (2007-2008) U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). 2007–08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08) Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2007–08, Selected Findings .
Are Asians model minority students because they face fewer cultural barriers? -Likely not "Many of the factors that seem to have a bearing on high achievement for Asian students relate to home environments and social structures outside of school. For example, many Asian American parents set high expectations for their children’s education, as evidenced by such activities as monitoring their children’s school performance, obtaining information about school curriculum and college requirements, encouraging participation in out of school learning activities, and holding their children responsible for their own learning. This may reflect the fact that many Asian immigrant parents were often very motivated to come to the U.S. and made sacrifices to provide their children with better educational and economic opportunities. Perhaps mirroring the values of their parents, many Asian American students are themselves strongly motivated and put considerable effort into schoolwork. Asian Americans spend a greater than average time on school assignments and engage in helpful study habits, such as forming study groups.” Nancy Kober, et al Policy Implications of Trends for Asian American Students Student Achievement Policy Brief, #2Center on Education Policy June 30, 2010
“Ideally, what should be said to every child, repeatedly, throughout his or her school life is something like this: 'You are in the process of being indoctrinated. We have not yet evolved a system of education that is not a system of indoctrination. We are sorry, but it is the best we can do. What you are being taught here is an amalgam of current prejudice and the choices of this particular culture. The slightest look at history will show how impermanent these must be. You are being taught by people who have been able to accommodate themselves to a regime of thought laid down by their predecessors. It is a self-perpetuating system. Those of you who are more robust and individual than others will be encouraged to leave and find ways of educating yourself — educating your own judgements. Those that stay must remember, always, and all the time, that they are being moulded and patterned to fit into the narrow and particular needs of this particular society.” ― Dorris Lessing, The Golden Notebook
“A good head and good heart are always a formidable combination. But when you add to that a literate tongue or pen, then you have something very special.” - Nelson Mandela
“The whole educational and professional training system is a very elaborate filter, which just weeds out people who are too independent, and who think for themselves, and who don't know how to be submissive, and so on -- because they're dysfunctional to the institutions.” - Noam Chomsky
Pell Grants are, and have been, critically important tools in making higher education a possibility for lower and middle income students. – Christopher Dodd Read
If you don't like what someone has to say, argue with them. – Noam Chomsky
The intellectual tradition is one of servility to power, and if I didn't betray it I'd be ashamed of myself. – Noam Chomsky
"The differences in measured skills between blacks and whites are enormous. By age 17, the average black student is performing at around the 20th percentile of the white distribution. This performance feeds directly into further schooling and into the labor market, continuing the cycle of inequality.” - Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin School Quality and the Black-White Achievement Gap NBER Working Paper, no. 12651 National Bureau of Economic Research October 2006
”How important are these social pressures? Although that story has yet to be fully told, in my view, the prevalence of acting white in schools with racially mixed student bodies suggests that social pressures could go a long way toward explaining the large racial and ethnic gaps in SAT scores, the underperformance of minorities in suburban schools, and the lack of adequate representation of blacks and Hispanics in elite colleges and universities.” - Roland G. Fryer Acting White Education Next The Hoover Institution 2006
"[…] the relatively low performance of Latino students, who in less than a generation will comprise roughly three in ten American children, is an urgent issue. The nation’s economic and social well-being will be compromised without efforts at all levels of government to develop policies to increase achievement for Latino young people.” - Nancy Kober, et al. Improving Achievement for the Growing Latino Population is Critical to the Nation’s Future Student Achievement Policy Brief, #3 Center on Education Policy June 30, 2010
"Grouping by ability is most prevalent in schools having about half their populations composed of white students. The proportion becomes relatively low both when whites dominate and when they make up a low percentage of students. This observation is consistent with those that claim tracking is de facto racial segregation.” - Peter G. VanderHart Why do some schools group by ability? Some evidence from the NAEP The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Volume 65, Number 2 Blackwell Publishing April 2006
"Ability grouping rarely benefits overall achievement, but it can contribute to inequality of achievement,as students in high groups gain and low-group students fall farther behind. The more rigid the tracking system, the more likely these patterns are to emerge.”- Adam Gamoran Synthesis of Research /Is Ability Grouping Equitable? Education Ladership, Volume 50, Number 2 Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development October 1992
"But if 'the poor shall always be with us,' so too will low test scores and other aspects of disadvantaged students’ inadequate achievement. It is unreasonable and irresponsible to expect schools and teachers to overcome social class differences while exempting every other institution and public official from taking action to do so.” - Richard Rothstein If “The Poor Will Always Be with US”, So Too Will Low Test Scores Cato Unbound Institute April 22, 2008
"For those who are interested in schools that produce academic success for minority students, there is no lack of examples, past and present. Tragically, there is a lack of interest by the public school establishment in such examples. Again, I think this goes back to the politics of education. Put bluntly, failure attracts more money than success. Politically, failure becomes a reason to demand more money, smaller classes, and more trendy courses and programs, ranging from 'black English' to bilingualism and 'self-esteem.' Politicians who want to look compassionate and concerned know that voting money for such projects accomplishes that purpose for them and voting against such programs risks charges of mean-spiritedness, if not implications of racism.” - Thomas Sowell The Education of Minority Children Hoover Institution 2001
I may sometimes be willing to teach for nothing, but if paid at all, I shall never do a man's work for less than a man's pay. – Clara Barton