Health and Disease Mr. Ramos
Introduction to Health & Diseases • Health is the state of one’s body. • Good health and bad health • Disease is anything that can lead to bad health. • Diseases in humans are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, protists, human genetics, & chemicals.
Public Health • Public health is the science that deals with protecting and improving the health of people in a community. • How to help • Teaching people about disease & prevention • Providing clean water • Vaccination • Food & Drug safety • Promoting healthy habits • Blood Screening
Infectious Diseases • Infectious diseases can spread from one organism to another. • The organisms that cause infectious diseases are called pathogens. • A parasite is any organism that lives on or in an organism and harms it. • Some pathogens can release toxins to harm. Toxins are poisons.
Infectious Diseases: Viruses • Viruses are tiny nonliving pathogens. • They can have DNA or RNA • Contain a protein coat • They are intracellular parasites • Their life cycle can be lytic or lysogenic • Examples: HIV, Flu, Ebola, Herpes, Rabies, Dengue
Infectious Diseases: Influenza • Flu is short for influenza. • The flu is caused by an RNA type virus. • Spread: sneezing, coughing, saliva. • Symptoms: fever, headaches, sore throat, coughing, severe body aches, and more. • Treatment: plenty of rest, drinking water & electrolyte beverages, pain and fever medication, antiviral medication. • Antibiotics are not needed. The flu constantly mutates, so you need a flu shot each year
Infectious Diseases: HIV • HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus • HIV destroys the human immune system and leads to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). • HIV is an RNA virus. • Spread: sex, blood, semen, breast milk, sharing needles. • Target: White Blood Cells (Helper T Cells) • Symptoms: fever, swollen lymph nodes, headaches, diarrhea, rash, cough, and many more. Some people are asymptomatic. • Treatment: Cocktail of Antiretroviral drugs (no cure for HIV).
Infectious Diseases: HIV • The best and cheapest way to know if someone has HIV is to check their blood for HIV antibodies. • ELISA is a blood test used to determine HIV antibodies.
Infectious Diseases: Chlamydia & Gonorrhea • Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are caused by bacteria. • Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. • Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. • Spread: they are sexually transmitted infections • Treatment: Antibiotics (people can be cured)
Bacterial Gene Transfer: Conjugation • Bacteria can exchange information through a process called conjugation. • Conjugation is a way to transfer information sexually (remember that bacteria reproduce asexually). • “Male” bacteria have are F+. They have a plasmid and a sex pilus. • “Female” bacteria are F-. They don’t have a plasmid or sex pilus.
Preventing Infectious Diseases • Three important ways to prevent infectious diseases: • Stay away from sick people • Get vaccinated • Practice good hygiene • A vaccine is a weak or deactivated organism that is placed in the body to trigger an immune response.
Noninfectious Diseases • Noninfectious diseases are not spread from one organism to another. • Some noninfectious diseases are genetic, so they can be passed down from parent to offspring. • Examples: Cystic fibrosis, Huntington’s disease, Sickle-cell anemia, Hemophilia, Diabetes, Cancer.
Noninfectious Diseases • Environment factors & one’s behavior can increase the likelihood for developing these disease. • Drinking too much alcohol can cause liver cancer. • Eating too much sugarcan cause diabetes. • Chemicals & polluted air, such as asbestos may cause lung problems.