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ANALISIS POLUTAN DI LINGKUNGAN

ANALISIS POLUTAN DI LINGKUNGAN

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ANALISIS POLUTAN DI LINGKUNGAN

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  1. ANALISIS POLUTAN DI LINGKUNGAN Oleh Sudrajat FMIPA_UNMUL 2010

  2. Di dalam melakukan analisis terhadap pengaruh pencemar pada biota di dalam ekosistem alamiah, perlu memperhatikan respon lingkungan tersebut terhadap jenis zat pencemarnya. - Studi hubungan respon organisme terhadap kadar polutan ( studi lapangan/ di lab) - Studi ambang batas zat/polutan yang dapatditoleransi suatu organisme di lingkungan - Studi tingkat mortalitas organisme akibat polutan

  3. - Uji respon genetis suatu organisme thdp polutan - Analisis akumulasi polutan di dalam organisme yang diduga terpapar - Uji morbidity - Evaluasi dampak terhadap kesehatan masyarakat - Analisis respon komunitas terhadap hadirnyapolutan di dalam lingkungan

  4. Kerangka Umum Penilaian Risiko Lingkungan

  5. Desain Program Analisis Pencemaran Lingkungan TUJUAN SAMPEL KAPAN DAN DIMANA BAGAIMANA ANALISIS DATA

  6. PELAKSANAAN PENILAIAN PAPARAN • Penerapan penilaian paparan di lapangan antara lain : • Pemantauan rutin terhadap paparan • Industri • Penelitian hubungan antara paparan kimia • dan efeknya terhadap kesehatan • 3.Hubungan dosis – respon • 4. Mengidentifikasi golongan masyarakat • yang mempunyai risiko • 5. Studi Toksikokinetik pada manusia • 6. Mengidentifikasi perjalanan bahan kimia • polutan setelah diserap manusia

  7. Keuntungan monitoring menggunakan evaluasi biologis. 1. Merupakan prioritas utama pengelolaan lingkungan hidup 2. Menggambarkan respon nyata terhadap zat pencemar 3. Dalam kasus tertentu, merupakan indikator peka terjadinya pencemaran lingkungan

  8. Kerugian monitoring menggunakan evaluasi biologis. (1). Mahal dan memakan waktu (2). Terdapat kekurangan kriteria kuantitatif (3). Adanya variabilitas respon organisme terhadap kehadiran zat polutan yg dapat dipengaruhi oleh iklim, kedalaman air, jenistanah, kualitas udara, waktu, dll (4). Kurangnya pengetahuan taksonomis thdp organisme yang dijumpai dan terlibat dalam respon thdp polutan (5).Tidak mencirikan sifat zat yang menyebabkan terjadinya pencemaran (6). Penggunaannya terbatas untuk kasus-kasus tertentu yg telah divalidasi

  9. Environmental Indicators are attributes associated with specific ecosystem elements (e.g., water, plants, animals and people) that are used to characterize and communicate the condition of the ecosystem. INDICATOR: SALMON • may inform about the current or evolving state of key ecosystem elements, or • may inform processes or mechanisms that drive ecosystem health The 2006 Partnership has defined an environmental indicator as a physical, biological, or chemical measurement, statistic or value that provides a proximate gauge or evidence of, the state of the condition of Puget Sound (ESSB 5372)

  10. Good environmental indicators are tools to manage ecosystems In relation to policy-making environmental indicators are used for three major purposes: To support policy development and priority setting by identifying key factors that cause pressure on the environment To supply information on environmental problems, in order to enable policy-makers to enable their seriousness. To assess the effects of policy responses In addition Environmental indicators may be used as a powerful tool to raise public awareness on environmental issues to strengthen public support for policy measures

  11. “Good” indicators based on clearly defined goals and objectives and important elements in conceptual models that define key ecosystem structures and functions developed and selected in a logical, structured selection process that is scientifically rigorous and transparent must have broad regional agreement on the indicator selection criteria/framework

  12. “Good” indicators based on clearly defined goals and objectives and important elements in conceptual models that define key ecosystem structures and functions developed and selected in a logical, structured selection process that is scientifically rigorous and transparent must have broad regional agreement on the indicator selection criteria/framework

  13. … must be understood and of interest to lots of people. They must tell a story that resonates with the public and policy makers!

  14. Evolution of a PSAMP Indicator 1987 PCBs detected in Puget Sound Salmon Puget Sound Chinook 3 to 5 times more contaminated 2006 DOH Report: only 1 meal Puget Sound Chinook per week No decline in PCBs for last 20 years. 2008 Hickie et al.Report: PCB levels in Puget Sound salmon are not protective of health of killer whales

  15. Example of how environmental indicators are used in an adaptive management framework To supply information on environmental problems, in order to enable policy-makers to value their seriousness. elevated PCB levels in herring, harbor seals, Chinook salmon, and orca whales no decline in PCB levels in 20 years consumption advisories for Puget Sound Chinook salmon To support policy, development and priority setting by identifying key factors that cause pressure on the environment. (May require additional research). 2006 Partnership requests toxic loading study… identifies run off as major source Management actions to reduce loadings in runoff ?? To assess the effects of policy responses

  16. How do we go about selecting indicators? need specific goals and objectives need conceptual models to build a common knowledge base and identify key functions/ processes must develop criteria and framework for indicator selection