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STL – Standard Template Library

STL – Standard Template Library

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STL – Standard Template Library

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  1. STL – Standard Template Library • Standard • Guaranteed to be available on all compilers implement the Standard • Template library • All components are templates, can be used for arbitrary element types.

  2. STL Entities • Entities: • Container classes • Sequence containers • Associative ordered containers • Iterators • Generic algorithms • Function objects (functors) • Other (not covered here) • Allocators • Adaptors

  3. Old Structure Queue Algorithm Stack algorithm List algorithm hash algorithm

  4. New Structure with STL Queue List Stack hash Container Algorithm Iterator The iterator is a bridge between Container and Algorithm

  5. Concepts • A concept is a set of abstractions • Defined by a set of requirements • Example: a container concept • {vector<T>, list<T>,set<K>, map<K,T>, … } • generic algorithms : algorithms that work correctly and efficiently for every abstraction in a concept Definition: Container refines Basic-container;uses Input-iterator;introduces begin(containers) -> iterators, end(containers) -> iterators, size(containers) -> naturals, empty(containers) -> bool;requires (for c: containers) size(c) = size(range(c, begin(c), end(c))), empty(c) = (size(c) = 0), valid(range(c, begin(c), end(c))).

  6. Container • A template, parameterized on element type • Represents a group of homogeneous objects • Two main types: • Sequence containers : vector, deque, list • Associative containers: set, multiset, map, Multimap • All containers support: • bool empty() const; • iterator begin() const; • iterator end() const; • int size() const; • Containers are characterized by complexity metrics • # of operations for insertion, deletion • # of operations for lookup

  7. Iterator • Points to one node in a list • Advances to next node • Compares with other iterators • Special value denotes “one past end” • Make heavily use of operator overloading. • Iterator hierarchy

  8. Iterator Example #include <list> // list class library usingnamespace std; void squareList(list<int>& nums) { list<int>::iterator it; for(it=nums.begin(); it != nums.end(); it++) *it = *it * *it; // Modify each element. }

  9. Sequence Containers • vector<T> • Random access, variable size, constant insertion time. • Description: http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/Vector.html • deque<T> • Random access, variable size • Description: http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/Deque.html • list<T>: • Bidirectional access, access time O(n), constant insertion time • Description: http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/List.html

  10. Simple Example - list #include <iostream> #include <list> usingnamespace std; int main(){ list<int> myContainer; list<int>::iterator it; myContainer.push_front(10); myContainer.push_front(20); myContainer.push_back(30); myContainer.push_back(40); for(it=myContainer.begin(); it!=myContainer.end(); it++) cout << *it << endl; myContainer.remove(30); // requires operator== myContainer.find(20); return 0; {

  11. Associative containers • Containers based on keys • set<key> • keys and data are the same, unique keys • Description: http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/set.html • multiset<key> • keys and data are the same, non-unique keys • Description: http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/multiset.html • map<key,T> • keys and data are paired, unique keys • Description: http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/Map.html • multimap<key,T>: • keys and data are pared, non-unique keys • Description: http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/Multimap.html

  12. Example - Map • We will define a map of class Person class Person { string m_sName; int m_iAge; public: typedef unsigned key; Person (const string sName, constint iAge): m_sName (sName), m_iAge (iAge) {}; Person () : m_iAge (0) {}; Person (const Person & p): m_sName (p.m_sName), m_iAge (p.m_iAge) {}; Person & operator= (const Person & rhs) {…} GetName () const { return m_sName; }; int GetAge () const { return m_iAge; }; };

  13. Map class People } public: map<Person::key, Person> m_mapPerson; typedef pair<Person::key,Person> PersonPair; friend ostream& operator<<(ostream & s, const People & o){ map<Person::key,Person>::const_iterator it; for(it=o.m_mapPerson.begin();it!=o.m_mapPerson.end(); it++) s << (*it).first << ":" << (*it).second << endl; return s; } void insert(Person::key k, Person p){ m_mapPerson[k] = p; } };

  14. functors • Motivation: Sometimes it is useful to pass functions as parameters • Usually results in messy/confusing code • Functions can’t hold a meaningful state • STL’s solution: function objects (functors) bool lessAbsoluteValue(float a, float b) { return abs(a) < abs(b); } bool (*mycomparison)(float, float); mycomparison = &lessAbsoluteValue; void sort(bool(*cmpfunc)(float, float), std::vector<float>);

  15. functors • Classes that implements the function call operator (operator()) • Use example: • sort(x.begin(), x.end(), lessAbsoluteValue()); class lessAbsoluteValue { public: bool operator()(float a, float b) const { return abs(a) < abs(b); } };

  16. Applying functors to a range struct add {     add( int n) : m_n( n) {} voidoperator()( int & value) {         value += m_n;     } private:     int m_n; }; int main() { int a[] = { 335, 33, 98, 39, 54, 24, 3 }; int nElements = sizeof(a) / sizeof(a[ 0]); std::for_each( a, a + nElements, add( 10)); }

  17. functor adaptors • wrapper functors that call member functions • mem_fun: works on member functions through a pointer • mem_fun_ref: works on member functions through an object or a reference • ptr_fun: works on global functions through a function pointer vector<SceneNode*> nodes; … sort(nodes.begin(), nodes.end(), mem_fun(&SceneNode::renderFirst));

  18. Algorithms • STL defines many different algorithms • Templated function of common operations on containers • Four categories of algorithms: • Non-mutating algorithms • Mutating algorithms • Sorting algorithms • Generalized numerical algorithms

  19. Non-mutating algorithms • find – looks for a specific item in a sequence • for_each – applies a functor to a range of elements in a sequence list<string> players; … if (find(players.begin(), players.end(), wantedName) != players.end()) { …} template<class T> struct print { print(ostream& out) : os(out), count(0) {} voidoperator() (T x) { os << x << ' '; ++count; } ostream& os; int count; }; … int A[] = {1, 4, 2, 8, 5, 7}; constint N = sizeof(A) / sizeof(int); print<int> P = for_each(A, A + N, print<int>(cout));

  20. Mutating Algorithms • copy - Copies all elements in a specified range to another range • reverse(first, last) – Reverse the elements in the sequence • rotate(first, middle, last) – Shifts elements until middle element is at the first position • random_shuffle - Shuffles all elements in the range // Copy the first 10 scores to the highscore table list<int> highcores; copy(scores.begin(), scores.begin()+10, highscores.begin());

  21. Sorting algorithms • sort • Sorts all the elements in a range (based on quicksort) • Uses operator< or a functor passed as an argument class Player { public: booloperator<(const Player& p) { returnthis->score_ < p.score_; } … vector<Player> players; sort(players.begin(), players.end());

  22. Generalized numerical algorithms • accumulate(first, last, init) • Sums of all elements in a range, starting with initial value • partial_sum(first, last, output) • Sequence of numbers created by adding all the elements up to the nth element for each of the output elements • adjacent_difference(first, last, output) • Sequence of differences between adjacent pairs • inner_product • Calculates dot product for two different ranges

  23. Algorithm+Container+Functor #include <cstring> #include <algorithm> #include <iostream> usingnamespace std; class CStringCompare { public: booloperator()(constchar* s1, constchar* s2) { return strcmp(s1, s2) < 0; } }; intmain() { vector<string> cartoons; cartoons.push_back(“Mickey”); cartoons.push_back(“Minnie”); cartoons.push_back(“Goofy”); sort(cartoons.begin(), cartoons.end(), StringCompare()); for (int i = 0; i < numberOfArgs; ++i) cout << args[i] << endl; return 0; } Output: Goofey Mickey Minnie