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Brazil’s Nuclear Program

Brazil’s Nuclear Program

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Brazil’s Nuclear Program

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  1. Brazil’s Nuclear Program Tiffany Farrar Brian Mellody DahianaTejada Christina Wingard

  2. Brazil • Largest country in South America in area and population with about 200 million people • One of the fastest growing economies in the world • Significant economic growth solidifies Brazil as the center of gravity in Latin America and as an important player in the world • 10th Largest energy consumer in the world Introduction International Position US Position Future

  3. Energy Production Introduction International Position US Position Future

  4. Energy Needs • Per capita electricity consumption in Brazil has grown strongly since 1990 • Given the high dependence on hydro-energy, there is a drive in policy to decrease that dependency and explore other options • Brazil which has interest in nuclear energy since the 1930s, began to find ways to produce it in the 1950s • They are interested in building more nuclear energy plants, with plans four more reactors in 2025 Introduction International Position US Position Future

  5. Angra 1 • 1970- Brazilian government seeks bid for initial nuclear plant • 1971- Contract for Angra 1 is awarded to Westinghouse and construction starts • Begins operating in 1982, suffered continuing problems • In it’s first 15 years only produced 25% lifetime load factor • Constructed on coastal site near Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Introduction International Position US Position Future

  6. Development of Nuclear Program • Brazilian government adopts a policy to become self-sufficient in nuclear technology and signs an agreement with West Germany for 15 nuclear plants Introduction • Establish state owned company- Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras (Nuclebrás) International Position US Position Future

  7. Angra 2 & 3 • 1995- A US $1.3 billion investment by German banks provides the financing to resume construction on Angra 2 • Operation only commences at the end of 2000 • Angra 3 was designed as a twin unit of Angra 2, but work was suspended before the project began in 1986 • Brazilian government announced plans to complete Angra 3 in 2009, expected to be in operation near 2015 Introduction International Position US Position Future

  8. International Opposition to Nuclear Programs Introduction International Position US Position Future

  9. Quadripartite Agreement of 1991 • Signed by Argentina, ABACC, IAEA, and Brazil • Binds Brazil and Argentina by IAEA safeguards • Emphasizes the need to avoid “unnecessary duplication of activites” • Stresses the importance of proprietary technology Introduction International Position US Position Future

  10. Quadripartite Safeguards Ensure: An open forum for economic and technological development Responsibility of the Agency to preserve technological secrets Introduction International Position US Position Future

  11. Brazil’s Problems with… Introduction International Position US Position Future

  12. Early US Brazilian Foreign Nuclear Policy Introduction International Position US Position Future

  13. Non- Proliferation Treaty Signed in 1967, called for the sole possession of nuclear arms in the United States, Russia, England, France, and China Introduction International Position • 1992 – Brazil accepts the restrictions set in place by the treaty • Brazil refused to sign the treaty US Position Future

  14. Progress? • Brazil refuses inspections in order to protect proprietary technology • 2004 – Colin Powell states that he is certain Brazil is not developing nuclear weapons Introduction International Position US Position Future

  15. Major Setback Introduction International Position US Position Future

  16. Rebuilding Relationship • Rouseff’s call for closer relations with United States • President Obama visits Brazil in March 2011 • No discussion of nuclear proliferation Introduction International Position US Position Future

  17. Nuclear Power in Brazil • Two nuclear reactors generating 3% of electricity • 1982 – 1st commercial nuclear power reactor began operating • By 2025 • No private investment is allowed in the nuclear power industry as of now, but that is under review Introduction International Position US Position Future

  18. Introduction International Position US Position Future

  19. Future Plans in Brazil • Build 4 new plants by 2030 • Electronuclear is looking at the Westinghouse AP1000, Areva-Mitsubishi and Atomstroyexport’s WER-1000 for funding Introduction International Position US Position Future

  20. Continued Research and Development • Brazil’s navy in 2009 proposed an 11MW prototype reactor that would be constructed in 2014. • The design of the prototype was expected to be finalized by 2011. • Brazil has also been involved in programs that are developing new-generation reactor designs and systems. Introduction International Position US Position Future

  21. Questions Given Brazil’s new economic and political prominence, do you think the additional reactors will be completed in 2025? Should we be pressure Brazil to allow inspection of its enrichment development sites? How do you think the Brazil – US relationship regarding nuclear policy will progress in the future? Introduction International Position US Position Future

  22. Sources • Hakim, Peter. "Inter-American Dialogue." Foreign Service Journal. 09 06 2011: n. page. Web. <http://www.thedialogue.org/page.cfm?pageID=32&pubID=2679>. • Marshall, Tyler, and Henry Chu. "Powell Sees No Nuclear Red Flags in Brazil." Los Angeles Times [Los Angeles] 06 10 2004, n. pag. Web. <http://articles.latimes.com/2004/oct/06/world/fg-powell6>. • "Nuclear Power in Brazil." World Nuclear Association. Nov. 2011. Web. 1 Mar. 2012. <http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf95.html>. • Morrison, Daphne. "Brazil's Nuclear Ambitions, Past and Present | Articles | NTI Analysis | NTI." NTI: Nuclear Threat Initiative. 1 Sept. 2006. Web. 01 Mar. 2012. <http://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/brazils-nuclear-ambitions/>. • http://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/brazils-nuclear-ambitions/  Introduction International Position US Position Future