El Yunque:Tropical Rainforest of Puerto Rico Dr. Enríquez Rodríguez- Borrero Dr. Félix Velázquez-Soto, UPR-Cayey RISE program
Group Members • GénesisThays Santos-Cotto • Michelle C. Pérez-Ayala • José David Centeno-Pagán • JarielYamilRamírez-Virella • Valeria María Nieves-Rivera • Nicole S. Rivera-Espinal • Ingrid M. Meléndez-Nieves • Paola Morales-Muñiz • Alejandra Martínez-Rivera • Alexander Colón-Romero
El Yunque The first habitants of El Yunque were Indian people, later Spanish, “jíbaros”, and North Americans Acoording to acient Indian legends, there was a good spirit called 'Yuquiyu' ( or 'Yokahu) that protected them El Yunque served as wood source for both Indian and Spanish people Indians used it for canoes and Spanish used it for building homes and boats
Served as an investigation center for the orange agent • Largest nature reserve in Puerto Rico and the only tropical rainforest under the protection of the US Forest Service • The Puerto Rican parrot is one of the ten most endangered species of birds in the world with only 30 alive in the wild
Four Forests within El Yunque Palo colorado (Xylosmaschwaneckeanum) El bosque de palma de sierra (Prestoea montana) Bosque Enano o Bosque de Nubes El bosque de tabonuco (Dacryodesexcelsa)
Purposes • Measure and observe: • Flora and fauna • Endemic species • Native species • Environmental conditions of different locations • Geographical diversity within an ecosystem
Tour guidance • Dr. Enríquez Rodríguez- Borrero and Dr. Félix Velázquez-Soto were guides of the El Yunque trip. • Dr. Félix Velázquez-Soto experience includes: • Different habitats, • Plant species • Animal life • Natural substances and resources
Río Mameyes • This River travels 15.6 mi2 from El Yunque (Rio Grande, origin) and Luquillo. • One of the ravines (quebradas) that is connected and nourishes this water body Cascada La Coca, which we will mention later on as one of our stops. But is main water current comes from el Río La Mina.
Río Mameyes • Our main focus was to find organisms in the rocky river, in order to know if it has habitable conditions. Two students, AbneillAlicea and AníbalTornés, were able to find snails that were alive, sleeping, or dead. From the three snails that were obtained one was moving and two were not.
Scientific instruments and use pH meter Soil thermometer GPS Water thermometer Wind speed meter
Bamboo Area • Soil temperature: 23 °C, 73 °F • Soil pH: 6 (acid) • Location: North (N) 18° 20.272’, West (W) 065° 45.730’ • Elevation: 689FT • Wind speed: 7 miles N
Cascada La Coca • Soil pH: 4 (acid) • Wind speed: 7 miles South East (SE) • Location: N 18° 19.118’, W 065° 46.276’
Big Tree Trailhead: La Mina Falls • Soil pH: 5 (acid) • #2 soil pH: 3.7 (acid) • Some plant species: Dianas, Tabonuco, and Palo Colorado • #3 soil pH: 4 (acid) • Soiltemperature: 59°F • Plant species: Palma de sierra
Railroad leading to “The Rock” • Location: N 18° 18.173’, W 065° 47.076’ • Elevation: 2,164 FT • Soil Temperature: 56°F • Animal species: Polluelos and Cotorras de Puerto Rico • #2 Soil temperature: 88°F • #2 pH: 6 (acid) • Plant species: Helecho de Montaña with thorns (“espinas”)
First Bridge • SoilpH: 3.5 (acid) • Water temperatura: 20°C, 70°F • Soil temperature: 55°F
Second Bridge (rocky) • Soil pH: 5 (acid) • Water temperature: 19°C, 66°F • Location: N 18° 18.305’, W 065° 47.383’ • Elevation: 2,608 ft
“The Rock” • Soil pH: 5.5 (acid) • SoilTemprature 54°F
Conclusions • Height is inversely proportional to temperature. • Temperature is proportional to pH.
Tips • Hydration • Do not interact with species • Use of raincoat • Do not travel alone • Bring food • Dispose of trash in backpack or designated areas • Use protective and safe clothing • Taking pictures and videos is permitted