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CCR5 : and HIV Immunity

CCR5 : and HIV Immunity

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CCR5 : and HIV Immunity

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  1. CCR5 : and HIV Immunity Gene Variation Works for and Against HIV Ashley Alexis & Hilda Hernandez

  2. Background • 1981: Homosexuals in New York and L.A.

  3. Background • 1981:Homosexuals in New York and L.A. • 1983:New retrovirus is named HIV 1

  4. Background • 1981: Homosexuals in New York and L.A. • 1983: New retrovirus is named HIV 1 • 1986: HIV 2 is isolated in West Africa

  5. Origin • Earliest known infection occurred in Kinshasa, Zaire, 1959

  6. Origin • Earliest known infection occurred in Kinshasa, Zaire, 1959 • Relationship between SIV and HIV is found

  7. Origin • Earliest known infection occurred in Kinshasa, Zaire, 1959 • Relationship between SIV and HIV is found • Original transfer to humans is unknown

  8. Transmission • Blood products

  9. Transmission • Blood products • Organ transplants

  10. Transmission • Blood products • Organ transplants • Sexual intercourse

  11. Transmission • Blood Products • Organ transplants • Sexual intercourse • Vertical transmission

  12. What is HIV? • Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  13. What is HIV? • Human Immunodeficiency Virus • A retrovirus

  14. What is HIV? • Human Immunodeficiency Virus • A retrovirus • It attacks T cells

  15. What is HIV? • Human Immunodeficiency Virus • A retrovirus • It attacks T cells • Leads to opportunistic infection

  16. What is HIV? • Human Immunodeficiency Virus • A retrovirus • It attacks T cells • Leads to opportunistic infection • Progresses to AIDS

  17. What is AIDS? • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

  18. What is AIDS? • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome • HIV infection confirmed

  19. What is AIDS? • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome • HIV infection confirmed • CD4 T-cell count is below 200

  20. What is AIDS? • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome • HIV infection confirmed • CD4 T-cell count is below 200 • HIV related syndrome is present

  21. Age # of Cumulative AIDS Cases Under 5: 6,928 Ages 5 to 12: 2,066 Ages 13 to 19: 4,219 Ages 20 to 24: 27,880 Ages 25 to 29: 103,085 Ages 30 to 34: 175,343 Ages 35 to 39: 177,759 Ages 40 to 44: 131,718 Ages 45 to 49: 77,152 Ages 50 to 54: 40,972 Ages 55 to 59: 22,423 Ages 60 to 64: 12,415 Ages 65 or older: 11,065 The Impact of AIDS

  22. Race or Ethnicity # of Cumulative AIDS Cases White, not Hispanic 337,035 Black, not Hispanic 301,784 Hispanic 145,220 Asian/Pacific Islander 5,922 American Indian/Alaska Native 2,433 Race/ethnicity unknown 632 The Impact of AIDS

  23. Disease Progression

  24. What is a T- “helper” Cell? • The cell HIV targets

  25. What is a T- “helper” Cell? • The cell HIV targets • Immune regulator cells

  26. What is a T- “helper” Cell? • The cell HIV targets • Immune regulator cells • Activates B-cells

  27. Structure of HIV

  28. HIV Lifecycle

  29. Step 1: Binding • The virus binds to host cell via receptors

  30. What are Receptors? • Molecules that extend from the cell membrane

  31. What are Receptors? • Molecules that extend from the cell membrane • Receive messages

  32. What are Receptors? • Molecules that extend from the cell membrane • Receive messages

  33. What Are Receptors? • Molecules that extend from the cell membrane • Receive messages • Serve as a docking device for viruses

  34. Step 2: Entry • Virus breaches cell’s outer membrane

  35. Step 2: Entry • Virus breaches cell’s outer membrane • Pushes core of viral proteins inside cell body

  36. Step 3: Uncoating • Viral core uncoats

  37. Step 3: Uncoating • Viral core uncoats • Releases genetic material and enzymes

  38. Step 4: Reverse Transcription • Reverse transcriptase processes viral genome

  39. Step 4: Reverse Transcription • Reverse transcriptase processes viral genome • Enables virus to copy its genetic structure

  40. Step 5: Nuclear Entry • The viral genome is transported to cell’s nucleus

  41. Step 6: Integration • Viral DNA is completely “mixed into” host cell’s genome

  42. Step 7: Transcription • Proviral DNA transcribes back into viral RNA

  43. Step 7: Transcription • Proviral DNA transcribes back into viral RNA • Produces strands of viral proteins

  44. Step 8: Translation • Protein strands are processed into chains of viral proteins

  45. Step 9: Assembly • Cut proteins are assembled

  46. Step 9: Assembly • Cut proteins are assembled • Packages of proteins migrate to cell’s surface

  47. Step 9: Assembly • Cut proteins are assembled • Packages of proteins migrate to cell’s surface • Begin to bud from host cell

  48. CCR5 Genetic Mutation = HIV/AIDS Immunity! • N.C.I. team headed by Dr. Stephen J. O’Brien conducted a study of 1,850 subjects at high risk of HIV infection.

  49. CCR5 Genetic Mutation = HIV/AIDS Immunity! • N.C.I. team headed by Dr. Stephen J. O’Brien et al. conducted a study of 1,850 subjects at high risk of HIV infection. • Separated subjects into two groups:

  50. CCR5 Genetic Mutation = HIV/AIDS Immunity! • N.C.I. team headed by Dr. Stephen J. O’Brien et al. conducted a study of 1,850 subjects at high risk of HIV infection. • Separated subjects into two groups • Compared how often allele combinations showed up in each group