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Chito P. Medina, Ph.D. National Coordinator, MASIPAG PowerPoint Presentation
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Chito P. Medina, Ph.D. National Coordinator, MASIPAG

Chito P. Medina, Ph.D. National Coordinator, MASIPAG

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Chito P. Medina, Ph.D. National Coordinator, MASIPAG

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  1. Sustainable Agriculture Practices and How Farmer-to- Farmer Network Works Chito P. Medina, Ph.D. National Coordinator, MASIPAG NGO representative., National Organic Agriculture Board (NOAB)

  2. The new hunting ground is not the best…

  3. Market speculation / Futures Climate Change Hunger GMOs High Demand Poverty Yield decline High Prices Injustice and Misery Low supply Land grabbing Land conversion Peak Oil

  4. BIGAS(Rice) Conference, 1985 Failure of Green Revolution: • Loss of local varieties • More inputs, higher costs • More pests, new biotypes • Infertile soils • Degraded environment • Poisoning >>Farmers “forgot how to grow rice” = Farmers’ greater indebtedness, rural poverty

  5. The Beginnings: Farmers • Victims of social injustice • Complained of the direct effects and impacts of the green revolution • Pushed the implementation of an alternative farming system • Willingness to participate, help, and lead

  6. MASIPAGMagsasaka at SiyentipikoparasaPag-unladngAgrikultura(Farmer-Scientist Partnership for Development): • organized in 1986 as partnership between farmers , scientists and NGOs as alternative approach to the Green revolution Goal: Empower resource-poor farmers through access and control of production resources (seeds, technology, land)

  7. Farmer-Scientist Partnership: TheMASIPAG Experience Partners: • Farmers, through their organizations (wealth of experience) • Non-Government Organizations (organizing skills) • Scientists (experimentation skills)

  8. Empowerment of farmers through: • Farmers’ control of seeds • Farmers’ control of technology • Farmers’ control of other resources • Shared leadership in organizations • Mastery in technology generation • Articulation of needs and pursuit of aspirations

  9. Strategies

  10. Programs • Collection, Identification, Maintenance, Multiplication and Evaluation (CIMME) • Breeding (Rice, Corn, Livestock) • Soil Fertility Management • Alternative Pest Management (APM) • Diversified-Integrated Farming System (DIFS) • Farmer-developed / adapted technology • Network Strengthening • Local Processing and Marketing • Advocacy

  11. Strategic Role of Farmers’ Organization  Effective coordination, multiplier  Planning and decision making  Mutual support  Ensure diffusion of benefits  Sustainability of activities

  12. MASIPAG Farmers’ Organizations (PO) Luzon: 90 POs Nueva Ecija: 8, Pangasinan: 9, Zambales: 7, Camarines Sur: 16, Occidental Mindoro: 1, Nueva Viscaya: 11, Isabela: 6, Cagayan: 2, Quezon: 7, Pampanga: 1; Rizal: 1; Abra: 2; Kalinga/Apayao: 3; Laguna: 1; Palawan: 4, Ilocos Norte: 1, Albay: 1, La Union: 1 Visayas: 174 POs Negros Occidental: 95, Iloïlo: 18, Antique: 13, Aklan: 12, Leyte: 7, Bohol: 1; Capiz: 12; Southern Leyte: 16; E. Samar: 2; N. Samar: 6 Mindanao: 390 POs Agusan del Norte: 34; Agusan Sur: 35; Bukidnon: 26; Compostela Valley: 1; Davao City: 39; Davao Norte: 29; Davao Oriental: 16; Davao del Sur: 9; Lanao del Norte: 11; Lanao del Sur: 4; Maguindanao: 10; Misamis Occidental: 18; Misamis oriental: 14; North Cotabato: 16; Saranggani: 2; South Cotabato: 6; Sultan Kudarat: 11; Surigao Norte: 7; Surigao Sur: 13; Zamboanga del Norte: 24; ZamboangaSibugay: 15; Zamboanga del Sur: 50  Masipag in 49 Provinces

  13. Members Undergo the Following Process:  Organizing  Sustainable Agriculture orientation  Establish a trial farm -monitor agronomic characters -conduct field day -select locally adapted  Thematic trainings • Diffusion between farmers and between POs

  14. Training: Level 1 - Basic orientation on Sustainable Agric. (Global, national, and local situation of food and agriculture, the green and gene revolutions, Masipag as an alternative) Level 2 - Soil Fertility Management (SFM) - Breeding (rice, corn, chicken) - Alternative Pest Management (APM) - Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS) - Masipag Farmer Guarantee System (MFGS) Level 3 (Trainor’s training)

  15. Diffusion through People’s Organizations Interested Farmers / LGU Organize Field Day /Advocacy Orientation Organization Trial Farm Observe / Characterize Training Locally Adapted Variety New Selection Breeding Experiment New Technology Increased Yield, Improved Income Other Farmers

  16. A. Seed Conservation and Diffusion 1. Farmers collect rice varieties (CIMME) >Collection, Identification, Multiplication, Maintenance, Evaluation) 2. Farmers organize and given SA orientation 3. Establish a trial farm(laboratory cum seed bank) -monitor agronomic characters -conduct field day -select locally adapted 4. Farmers’ training 5. Do Breeding and further selection 6. Diffusion of seeds and knowledge among farmers

  17. Collection, development and use of TRVs: 1,105 Traditional Rice Varieties collected 1,085 Masipag rice developed 506 Farmer-bred selections 75 Native corn varieties 6 native chicken gene pool

  18. Masipag Rice conservation and Seed support system National Back-up Farm 2,160 rice varieties & Selections Regional (2), Provincial (9) Back-up farms 300 to 1,200 rice varieties & selections PO-managed Trial farms (223) At least 50 varieties per TF Verification farms 6 to 24 varieties Farm Production At least 3 varieties

  19. B. Rice Breeding by Farmers 67 farmer-breeders 506 rice developed

  20. C. Role of Farmer- managed Trial Farm Farmers’ laboratory Develop site-specific varieties Develop site-specific technology Seed bank Creative organizing Advocacy

  21. Luzon (83): Nueva Ecija: 8, Pangasinan: 2, Zambales:1, Camarines Sur: 13, Occidental Mindoro: 10, Nueva Viscaya: 9, Isabela: 18, Cagayan: 1, Quezon: 14, Pampanga: 1; Antipolo: 2; Abra: 2, Ilocos Norte: 1, La Union: 1 Visayas (81): Negros Occidental: 29, Negros Oriental: 1, Iloïlo: 10, Antique: 17, Aklan: 1, Cebu: 2, Leyte: 10, Bohol: 1; Capiz: 5; Eastern Samar: 5 Mindanao (61): North Cotabato: 5, Agusan del Norte: 1; Davao City: 1, Davao del Sur: 1; Lanao Norte: 2, Zamboanga del Sur: 3, Zamboanga del Norte: 15; Misamis Oriental: 1, Bukidnon: 6; Compostela Valley: 1; Maguindanao: 3; South Cotabato: 3; SultanKudarat: 2; Surigao del Norte: 5; ZamboangaSibugay: 11 Farmer-Managed Trial Farms in 49 Provinces

  22. Locally Adapted MASIPAG Rice and TRVs Pangasinan – Lamyung, Bulik, Mogen, Cinamon, , Pandan, Sampaguita, Parirutong, India, Resco, Imp. Milagrosa, C22, M45, M3-4-1-2, M69-2-1, M120-4, M10-2-2-5, M44-3, M4-B1, M5-B1, M40-2-2, M44-1, M140-2, M8-3-1 Kalinga – Onay Cagayan – Elon-elon, Ag 5, M8-3-1, M35-1-1, M45-1, M69-4-1 Nueva Vizcaya – Pinili, Hinomay, Valentino, Ag 19, M11-20, M3-6, M109, M5-6, M45, M90, M11-20SG, M5-1, M30-1, M135-1, M19, 102 Zambales -, Fortuna, Pandan, Japanese 3, C21, M45, M11R Aurora – Elon-elon, Camoros, Sampaguita, Wag-wag Aga, Palawan, Raminad, Londan-honay, Galo, Ag 5, Ag 17, Kadali, Ag 27, White Borong, Fortuna, M21, M6-11-1, M3, M4, M35 Nueva Ecija - Wag-wag Aga, Senador, AG5, AG10, Abra white, C22, M115-R, M146-1, M4-3-1, M45-1, M21-2-B2, M104-2R, M108-1R, M35-4-1, M69-2-2, M5-BD-2, M130-3, M48-1-1, M11-5-1, M86-3-1, M21, M11, M69, M5B2, M30, M45, M36-4-2, M4-3-1 Oriental Mindoro – Elon-elon, Ka Luis, AG5, GV3, M13, XO, M97, M11, M45-1 Laguna – Wag-wag Aga, Sampaguita, BS Nagkarlan, Africa, M5-AS, M8-2-1, M62-1-2, M45, M5-B-2, M13-1-1, M13-1-1B, M36-4-1, M30-10-1B, M4-3-1, M3-2-1, M10-2-1 Aklan – Imp. Camoros, M45-1, M15-12-1, M11-5-1, M31-37-B4, M21-b1-1, M76-4-1, M2-1-1, M5-CS, M125-2, M140-1, M13-2-1B, M5-A1, M11-5-1, M36-2-1 Quezon – AG17, AG5, M41, M35, M12-21 Capiz – Libtong Mal, Milagrosa, Kadidit, Ag 23, M16-3, M115-1R, M114-4 Antique – AG5, AG10, 16-70D, San Pablo, Minantika, Red Rice, M5-BD, M5-CS, M21-B3, M21-B1-1, M21-37-B4, M36-1, M36-3, M36-4-1, M62-1-1, M104-2, M139-2 Camarines Sur – AG24, Elon-elon, M5-A, M48, M70, M102, M103, M106, M107, M110, M112, M128, M131, M143 Agusan del Norte- Palay Damo, AG5, AG10, Sta. Maria, San pablo, Carandang, Bengawan, Jap 1, Tapol 1, India, M5-AS, M117, M11-20-1, M11-20-B2, M4-4B, M5C, MC14-2R, M87-W, M6-14-1-1 Negros Occidental – Wag-wag, AG10, AG5, Binangan, Dinorado, Fortuna, Imp. Borong, Imp. Milagrosa, Inuwak, Macan, Red Borong, Sampaguita, White Borong, Zambales, 2R-IN, 90D-42, 90D-43, 90D-44 Bugana Rice, GL1-8-1, GL4-5-5, GL4-9, M10-2-1, M104-1R, M11-20-1, M117-1R, M127-3, M13-2, M133-1, M139-1, M15-12-1, M20-1, M21-37-B4, M22-2-1, M36-1, M36-4-1, M4-4B, M5-BD, M50-1-1, M50-2, M5-AS, M62-1-1, M62-1-2, M6-6, M69-3-1, M8-2-1, M8-3-1, M90-2, M90-LG, MV4-4, Mv4-8 Iloilo - Kagingi, Imp. Camoros, Malido, Lubang, Inuwak, red Borong, M15-12-1R, M10-2-1 Surigao del Sur – San Pablo, M2-1-1, M5-BD, M13-2-1B, M3-4-1, M93-1 Bohol - Melobina, Maragay, Ag 5, Magsanaya, M148-1, SKK Zamboanga del Sur – White Bengawan, Red Elon-elon, Red Wag-wag, AG5, AG17, C35, M101-1-1, M112-4, M115-6, M76-3-1, M8-1-1-2, M86-4-1, M97-2-1, M35-1-4-1, M97-ES, M5-AS, M15-12 Davao del Norte – AG5, Layong Mabilog, Cicadiz, Sampaguita, Milagrosa, Hinumay, Malagkit, Tinangi, Bogret, Camoros, San Pablo, Red Wag-wag, Wag-wag Aga, M35, 4-11-90, M21-4-1, M58, M50, M59, M75-1, M4-4-B2 Lanao del Norte – Ala, Wag-wag Aga, Sulig, Hinumay, AG5, M15-12-1, M19, M68, M91, M86-4-1, M109, M117-1-1R, M108-1R, M36-2, M86-4-1, M8-3-1 Davao del Sur – AG5, M117-3, M15-12-1, M117, M95-5, M5-AS North Cotabato – C21, Moguama Africa, Nagdami, Vahari, Vadani, BS Nagkarlan, Maligaya Rice, Pinitumpo, AG5, Puro-puro, San pablo, Tinagi, M35-1-2-1, M67-2-1, M5-BD, M26-4-1, M115-1A, M108-1R, M5-C3, M5-CS, M4-4B, M36-4-1, M14-1-1, M11-6-1, M123-2, M129-1, M10-2-2-5, M11-20-1, M11-6-1, M30-10-1B, M36-4, M-AS, M5-B2, M94-4-1,, M11-6-1, M126-1-2, M13-21B, M131-1, M146-1, 21-2-B2, M15-12-1 South Cotabato – San Pablo, AG5, M2, M3-1-1, M5-CS Bukidnon – Lubang, C18, Senador, Wag-wag Aga, Bengawan Puti, red Elon-elon, Red Borong, AG24, Bogret, Makagina, Mamintana, Pungko, Sologanon, SP Red, Sta. Maria, Sto. Niño, Sulig, AG5, Maligaya Rice, AG10, Puro-puro, Red Binato, M5-BD, C11-4, Dong Red, M76-1, M94, M15-12-1, M3-4-1, M35-3-1, M51-1-1, M51-2, M5-C, M70-1W, M75-1, M86-1, M90-LG, M93-1

  23. RESULTS: Number of Traditional Rice Varieties (TRVs) and Masipag rice with desired characteristics.

  24. Climate Change-ready varieties Drought tolerant – Elon-elon, San Vicente, Palawan, M160-1 Solano, Nueva Vizcaya Salt Water tolerant– Loreto, Binulungan, M115-1R, M45-1 Calabanga, Cam Sur Bato, Cam Sur Flood tolerant – M116-2, M115-1R, M160-1, M45-1, PBB 401 Drought tolerantt – Senador, Hubanib Drought tolerant – M6-14-1R Batbatngon, Leyte Patnongon, Antique Alimodian, Iloilo Libagon, Southern Leyte Drought tolerant – M148-2, M394-1, M51-2, M177-3, M74-1 Drought tolerant – Red Borong, Zambales MLD 4-1 Flood tolerant – JDC 3 , JDC8, Dalagang Bukid Sta. Josefa, Agusan del Sur Drought tolerant – M4-3-1,Hinumay Malng, North Cotabato Legends: Farmer-bred lines Traditional rice varieties MASIPAG Selections Sultan Kudarat, Saranggani Salt water tolerant – Jasmine, Kanoni, Elon-elon, Makaginga, Binulawan

  25. Soil Fertility Management Fermented Plant Juice, Fish Amino Acid, Indigenous microorganisms D. Soil Fertility Management Compost, Vermicompost Green manure

  26. E. Alternative Pest Management • Farm Management Practices • Soil nutrient management • Method and time of planting Crop and Varietal • Water management Diversification • Crop rotation • MaintainInsect Pest,Pathogen,Ecological • Weed Balance • Technology Development • by Farmers Soil fertility

  27. F. Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS) • Diversification is insurance against stochastic events > 3-5 varieties of rice per farmer > Diversification in time (crop rotation) > Diversification in space (vertical space, horizontal space) > Diversification by use > Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS) = a farm plan is needed

  28. DIFS: more sources, more food, more income

  29. DIFS and multifunctionality • Maintain stock resources in the Farm Ducks: Natural pest control Livestock: Bank in the backyard!

  30. G. Poultry Gene Pool and Development Nine PO managed chicken gene pool

  31. No Regrets Adaptation to Climate change: Cultivation of survival crops: • Tuber crops are food insurance (sweet potato, cassava, taro, yam) • Resilient crops (banana) • Sturdy crops (coconut) > non-traditional food crops and animals • Drought tolerant (sorghum, pigeon pea)

  32. H. Farmer-developed and Adapted technologies Pangi leaves used as botanical pest control by Doming of Zamboanga del Sur Carabao driven rotary used in rice farming by Abraham of Sultan Kudarat

  33. Organic farming for rural development • Organic farming: use resources within the farm > Green Manuring(biofertilizers) > Crop and animal wastes (as organic fertilizers) > Vermicomposting > Companion crops >>> reduces farmers’ economic exposure to risks (less production costs)

  34. Reduce vulnerability through farmer-based adaptive strategies • Diversification > 3-5 varieties of rice per farmer > Diversified and Integrated Farming Systems > Tuber crops (food insurance) > non-traditional food crops and animals > Green Manuring (biofertilizers) > Livestock (bank in the backyard) > Medicinal plants (pharmacy in the backyard)

  35. I. Local marketing of organic products • MASIPAG Farmers’ Guarantee System: • Organic standards • Internal quality control • Product and market development • Processing facilities • Management capacity bldg.

  36. J. Advocacy • Advocacy against development aggression: -GMOs, patenting of life, corporate control -Mining -Aerial spraying -Land grabbing and land conversion -Biofuels • Advocacy in favor of: - agrarian reform - susag/organic ag and food security >> practical work is our best advocacy

  37. Improved Income:Net agricultural income per hectare, 2007(Pesos) ** = highly significant differences *** = very highly significant differences Ns = no significant difference

  38. MASIPAG, after 26 years: As organization and network: • 635 Peoples Organizations; 35,000+ farmers • 60 Non-Government Organizations • 15 Scientist-partners • 67 farmer rice breeders; 12 corn breeders • 100+ volunteer farmer-trainers On-farm research resources • 223 PO-managed trial farms +10 back-up • 9 PO-managed native chicken gene pools Active in 49 provinces

  39. Summary MASIPAG works on: • Farmers’ Empowerment • Biodiversity conservation • Sustainable agriculture and farming • Organic production and marketing • Food security and Poverty alleviation • Coping mechanism to climate change >> Not Green or Gene revolution but “Farmer revolution” >>A partnership, a network, a philosophy and a way of life

  40. Some Lessons in Participatory Research • Agricultural problems have technological as well as non-technological solutions • Certain degree of trust and confidence building as well as leveling-off is needed • R & D should be farmer-centered, not project-, discipline-, scientist-, agency-, or NGO-centered • Need-driven, not fund driven

  41. Some Lessons in Participatory Research • Farmers’ counterparting and no dole-outs should be observed • Sense of ownership by the farmers should be inculcated • Organization has multiplier and sustainability effect • Change and development should only be as fast as the farmers can assimilate

  42. Source: Barefoot Guide to Organizations

  43. Wanderer, your footsteps are on the road, Wanderer, there is no road, The road is made by walking. Antonio Machado The paths are not to be found, but made And the activity of making them Changes both the maker and the destination. John Schaar Thank you for your attention.