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2012 Apartheid and South Africa

2012 Apartheid and South Africa

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2012 Apartheid and South Africa

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  1. 2012 Apartheid and South Africa

  2. On your Left Side: • Write down what you already know about South Africa and/or apartheid. • Where do you know this information from? • Book you read • Movie you saw • TV program you saw

  3. On your Left Side: • Diagram or draw out a timeline and write down the main events from the next couple of slides.

  4. Early HistoryA Time Line • 1806 – British seize Cape of Good Hope • 1867 – Discovery of Gold • 1886 – Discovery of Diamonds • 1889 – 1902 – The Boer War (British and Dutch settlers) • 1902 – The beginning of apartheid • 1990’s – The end of apartheid

  5. Early Inhabitants of South Africa The Khoikhoi speaking people lived in the southern coastal region of South Africa, the San, or bushmen, in the desert region, and Bantu speaker (farmers, hunters, and herdsmen) in the east .

  6. 1835: The “Great Trek” Feeling the British policy destroyed their political and social order, based on racial separation and that white dominance was “God’s own will,”10,000 Boers, or Voortrekkers, left Cape Town to escape British rule on a 1,000 mile migration inland, known as the“Great Trek.”

  7. On your Left Side: • Make a timeline of the main events of the Boer Wars/Struggles.

  8. A Series of Boer Struggles 1838: Boers defeat the Zulu nation in the Battle of Blood River in their fight to obtain land the Zulu tribe was occupying. • : British take over Natal. 1852-1854: Boers travel further north and establish the Orange Free State and Transvaal as independent republics. 1870-1886: Diamonds deposits are discovered in Kimberley and gold deposits are discovered in Transvaal causing an influx of British immigrants and black Africans searching for work and fortune. 1880-1881: Anglo-Boer Wars

  9. More struggles 1899: Boer War erupted as a result of Afrikaaners upset over Continual British migration inland to the mining regions. 1899-1902: British established Afrikaner civilian camps where epidemics broke out and killed 26,000 prisoners. 1902: Boers surrendered to British rule 1910: British award independence to South Africa. They believed only white to be capable of self-government. Blacks were barred from voting and Afrikaans was made the official language.

  10. A Country Divided • White South Africans made up only 21.5% of the total population and of these, an English-speaking minority dominated government and business in the cities. • Most whites were Afrikaans-speaking Boers, mostly farmers and still bitter about the war • The majority black population, 67%, included many different groups of people including Zulu and Xhosa of the Transkei region. Other groups were much smaller.

  11. By 1910, black Africans owned less than 10% of a country their ancestors completely controlled. • 1913, the South African Parliament passed a Native Land Act that limited the blacks’ ownership of land even more. • Apartheid placed restrictions on how people could live. For example, black South Africans were made to live in tiny clusters of homes called townships.

  12. Other Ethnic Groups • Coloureds: 9% of the population. • Indian immigrants: 2.5% of the population. Both groups had varying rights in the Cape, but were not treated as equals by most whites

  13. The Native Homeland Act separated different African tribes into segregated areas. This act set aside 7.3% of the country’s land Aside as reservations and banded black Africans from buying land outside these areas.

  14. Road to Apartheid In 1912, the South African Native National Congress (later known as the ANC – 1923) was founded to unite black Africans and defend their interests. In 1913, the Afrikaaner Nationalist Party was established.

  15. ANC • African National Congress (ANC) was created to aide in the civil rights movement.

  16. Peaceful Protest • 1912, a young Indian Lawyer living in Cape Town named Mohandas K. Gandhi became outraged after being thrown off the train for sitting in a “white’s only” seat. • He organized a peaceful protest march, inspiring some black South Africans to form a civil rights organization.

  17. Whites Asserting Control • In 1924, the Labour Party defeats the South African Party. • Led by James Hertzog, South Africa became more independent of British control and favored the interests of whites, especially Afrikaners. • Afrikaans is confirmed as an official language along with English.

  18. South Africa: Divided by Race • Decolonization in South Africa was tainted by the clash between white and black citizens of the newly free country. • The government that declared freedom from Britain was controlled by the white minority, largely descended from the Dutch Boers. • These Afrikaners practiced the policy of apartheid (extreme racial segregation). • South Africa is one of the world’s richest sources of gold and diamonds. • Between the 60’s and 90’s, the white government of South Africa turned the country into the wealthiest, most modern, and most industrialized on the continent.

  19. Apartheid Racial Separation • 1948, racial discrimination heightened when Afrikaner-dominated National Party began to run South African government • Instituted policy of apartheid, “apartness” in Afrikaner language • Apartheid policy divided into four racial groups: White, Black, Colored (mixed ancestry), Asian • Attempted to create greater separation between whites, nonwhites, impose harsh controls South Africa In the early 1900s South Africa was run by white Afrikaners—descendants of the original Dutch settlers. Even though South Africa had received independence from Great Britain in 1910, nonwhites in South Africa were not free under the Afrikaner government. Apartheid laws banned interracial marriages, and placed further restrictions on African ownership of land and businesses.

  20. Apartheid • a method of “divide and rule” to counteract the so-called "black danger" Afrikaner rulers saw Africans as threatening to overrun or engulf them by their sheer numbers. • Brutal racism: imprisonment, police killings and murder

  21. Apartheid “Apartheid” is a word meaning “Separateness” Black South Africans, who made up 75% of the population, and other non-white People lived under government institutionalized racial segregation from 1948 to 1994. Non-whites were stripped of citizenship and necessities such as medical care and education.

  22. What is Apartheid? • Apartheid= separateness • A policy of racial discrimination • Began in 1948 by South Africa’s government • Black South Africans (more than 75% of pop.) were forced to live under strict segregation

  23. HendrikVerwoerd Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966 “Architect of Apartheid”

  24. 1948: Apartheid becomes Law • During the 1948 elections, the National Party introduced apartheid as part of their campaign. • With the party’s victory, led by D.F. Malan, apartheid became the governing political policy until the early 1990’s. • Many National Party members aligned with the Nazi party racist movement that had divided humanity into “master race” to dominate and an “inferior” race to be enslaved.

  25. Citizenship Denied Laws Harsh on Blacks • Under apartheid, only white South Africans could vote, hold political office • Blacks made up nearly 75 percent of population, were denied South African citizenship • Restricted to certain occupations, very little pay • Apartheid laws especially harsh on blacks in South Africa • Required to carry passes, identity books • Also faced imprisonment if police found them in an area for more than 72 hours without pass Apartheid Laws

  26. 1948-Racism institutionalized -Marriage between blacks and whites prohibited -”white-only” jobs sanctioned 1950-Population Registration Act -Divided South Africans into white, black (Africans), and colored (mixed descent) -Based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent -Blacks-forced to carry “pass books” holding fingerprints, photograph, and information on access to non-black areas Looking into Apartheid… The History of Apartheid in South Africa

  27. Apartheid- Marriages and business • Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 55 of 1949, prohibiting marriages between white people and people of other races • Blacks were not allowed to run a business in the areas that were meant for white South Africans.

  28. Laws of Apartheid Apartheid is the rigid racial division between the governing white minority population and the non-white majority population. It is Afrikaan for “apartness” People were divided into three social groups • White • Black African or Bantu • Coloured or people of mixed descent.

  29. Africans had to be legally classified (Black, White, Colored, Indian) Africans were not allowed to have interracial marriages Africans had to carry registration cards with their race indicated Africans had to be separated publicly (restaurants, hospitals, beaches, theaters, pools, restrooms, etc) Africans also had separate educational systems (lower standards for blacks) Some Rules of Apartheid

  30. Images of Apartheid

  31. Apartheid No Rights for Non-whites • No right to vote • No ownership of land • No right to move freely • No right to free speech • No right to protest the government

  32. On your Left Side: • Which of these laws makes you most angry? Why?

  33. Apartheid separated the whites from the non-whites

  34. On your Left Side: • Imagine you are one of the black non-citizens of South Africa. • How would you feel about what is happening in your country? Why? • What would you do about it? Why?

  35. What does Kaffir mean? • The word Kaffir is an ethnic slur that is mostly used in Jamaica and South Africa. • Referring to someone from Jamaica or South Africa as Kaffir would be the same as referring to an African-American person as the “N-word.” • This usage and “strength” of Kaffir is fading away.

  36. Dehumanization All blacks were required tocarry pass books containing fingerprints, photo, and information to non-black areas. Non-whites were classified into various groups by way of state tests. This classification would determine rights and privileges. Children were taught from a young age to prepare to be a laborer when they grew up.

  37. A Journey of Inequality 1939-Representation of Voters Act weakened the political rights for Africans and allows them to vote only for white representatives. COUNTERPARTS: PEOPLE ON THE SAME LEVEL, DOING THE SAME WORK 1946-African mine workers are paid twelve times less than their white counterparts. Over 75,000 Africans go on strike in support of higher wages. Over 1000 workers are injured or killed before police violence forces them to end the strike 1948-The Afrikaner Nationalist Party gains control of the government and passed the first of 317 Apartheid laws, separating whites from blacks. APARTHEID: A POLICY OF SEPARATENESS 1951-The African National Congress (ANC), a political organization for Africans, encourages peaceful resistance to Apartheid Laws. The government reacts by arresting more people. AFRIKANER: A EUROPEAN DESCENDANT OF THE DUTCH IN SOUTH AFRICA 1950-1953-Multiple Apartheid laws are passed restricting the movement and rights of blacks and requiring pass books. From 1948-1973, over ten million Africans were arrested because their passes were not in order

  38. Mine Workers in South Africa Working conditions were terrible in the mines, with miners earning only a few dollars a day and being forced to be separate from their families for months or years at a time.

  39. Apartheid-Public facilities and jobs • Medical care and other public services and provided black people with service inferior to those of Whites • Practical separation of residential areas • Separation of public institutions e.g. schools and hospitals. • Separation of jobs, ”jobs for whites only” • Separate use of facilities like toilets, chairs, bus stops, stair-cases etc. • Black buses stopped at black bus stops and white buses at white ones. • Trains, hospitals and ambulances were segregated

  40. With your partner on your Left Side: • Compare and contrast the treatment of blacks in American before the abolishment of Jim Crow Laws to that of blacks in South Africa under Apartheid.

  41. On your Left Side: • What is the main point the cartoonist is making about apartheid? • How can you tell?

  42. 1951 Bantu Authorities Act Created basis for ethnic government in African reserves or “homelands” Blacks had no rights in South Africa. Their rights were restricted to the so called “homelands”. The White Government had complete control over the homelands. By Mzoli Mncanca

  43. Homelands • Townships • Apartheid placed limits on where blacks could live • Required to live in impoverished areas of cities called townships • Further Segregation • Restricted businesses allowed in townships, kept people poor • 1950s, created rural “homelands” for tribes, groups • Citizenship • Did not include good farmland, resources • Used homelands as excuse for depriving blacks of citizenship • Aliens • Men forced to migrate without families to work in mines, factories, farms • Homeland policy made millions resident aliens in own country

  44. Homelands • “Reservations” or “Bantustans” • Verwoerd established 9 African groups • Each was to become a nation within its own homeland • Africans had rights and freedoms • Outside the homelands, treated as aliens • Poor quality land with erosion • Completely incapable of supporting large populations

  45. Typical Homestead

  46. Homelands • Covered 13% of South Africa’s land area for 75% of its population. • Economic development was outlawed. • The only work was in the white areas • Blacks were forced to live apart from their families to work in the white areas where they had to carry Passes at all times.