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香港教師的供求與培訓 PowerPoint Presentation
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香港教師的供求與培訓

香港教師的供求與培訓

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香港教師的供求與培訓

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  1. 香港教師的供求與培訓 高國威 教育政策與行政系 19-03-04 鳴謝:香港教育學院策劃及學務執處

  2. 香港中小學教師的需求 • 九十年代至今,學生人數穏定,但教師人數平穩增加 • 小學及中學各有二萬多教師 • 新的教育政策,增加了學校對教師的需求僱用的教師多於流失的數目 • 橫向流動減少 • 政策性的影響多於結構性的影響

  3. 教師行業的特徵 • 需求大量高教育水平人力,公營為主 • 難以量度生產力,與其他同學歷職系掛鈎 • 按學歷經驗,能力給薪 • 多非專上教育畢業生首選課程/行業 • 較多女性參與,愈來愈「女性」化;中小學皆有增加的趨勢

  4. 教師行業的特徵 • 吸引較穏定傾向的人入職 • 易入易出?易入難走?旋轉門? • 不同科目、學歷、但同職級同酬 • 由本地培訓(學歷和專業教育),到學歷多元化(海外教育畢業生) • 邁向全學位及全受訓,教師學歷不斷提升

  5. 三個層面的教師供求 • 社會 — 中、小、幼教師的需求和培訓 • 學校 — 不同的學校條件、地區、學生質素等 • 科目 — 課程改革、新科目、式微的科目

  6. 教師供應機制 • 人力規劃 vs 市場機制 • 人力規劃 —保証有足夠的教師給本地學校聘用以提供基礎教育 • 政策控制:需求、入職要求、培訓模式

  7. 三個層面的教師供應 • 吸引已受訓 / 合格教師入職(Joining the Profession) • 吸引中 / 大學畢業生接受教師教育(Taking Teacher education program) • 使入職教師繼續任教(Retention of serving teachers)

  8. Teacher quality (Subject, score, demographic) Incentive (Salary and working conditions) Retention/attrition (Length of reaching spells, wastage rate) 我的研究 —香港中學英語教師的繼續任教意願 The studies on teacher retention

  9. Teacher’s personal characteristics (X1) Perception on compensation structure (X2) Perception on working conditions (X3) Retention tendency to teach (Y) Conceptual Framework and Research Methodology

  10. Table 6.1a Demographics and background information of the respondents Frequency Percentage Table 6.1a Demographics and background information of the respondents Gender Female 378 77.1% Male 112 22.9% Teaching experience ≤ 5 years 121 24.9% 6-10 years 120 24.7% 11-15 years 98 20.2% 16-20 years 75 15.5% >20 years 71 14.6% Teaching training Pre-service 192 40.0% 64.1% In-service 230 47.9% Receiving training 44 9.2% N=490 No training 14 2.9% Academic Degree holder Local degree 271 61.2% background Overseas degree 139 31.4% No degree 33 7.4% Major English 315 65.5% Non-English 166 34.5% Professional development program Studying 176 36.4% Not studying 307 63.6% Marital status and children number Single 212 43.7% Married - No child 99 20.4% - 1-2 children 167 34.4% - Over 3 children 7 1.4% Marital status Single 212 43.7% Married 273 56.3% Family status - Children With children 174 35.9% Without children 311 School type Government 31 6.3% Aided 438 89.4% Direct subsidized 21 4.3% Level of English taught Low level (S1-S3) 423 87.6% Middle level (S4-S5) 287 59.4% High level (S6-S7) 138 28.6% N=490

  11. The English teachers in Hong Kong secondary schools

  12. Table 6.1b The distribution of the respondents by teaching experience and gender

  13. Academic qualification English Teachers with Local Degree Overseas Degree Total 10 years or less teaching experience 168 81.2% 39 18.8% 207 (51.0%) More than 10 years teaching experience 99 49.7% 100 50.3% 199 (49.0%) Total 267 65.8% 139 34.2% 406 (100.0%) Table 6.1c Academic background (local or overseas degree) of the respondents by teaching experience

  14. Table 6.1d The desirable and maximum class size and teaching load expected by English teachers of the sample in Hong Kong secondary schools

  15. Table 6.1e Number and percentage of the respondents of different teaching ranks by higher degree, major and gender * p < 0.05 By Chi-Square test ** p < 0.01 By Chi-Square test

  16. Table 6.2a The respondents’ willingness to teach and teach English next year N=490

  17. Table 6.2b Cross tabulation of respondents’ willingness to teach and willingness to teach English next year

  18. Table 6.2c The respondents’ intention to change job because of same or higher salaries for other jobs relative to teaching

  19. Table 6.3 Chi-square tests of personal characteristics and retention tendency of the respondents

  20. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *fo = frequency observed ^fe = frequency expected

  21. Table 6.6a The respondents’ perception ratings on working conditions in Hong Kong secondary schools

  22. Table 6.6b A comparison of the perceptions of the English teachers of 100% and not 100% retention tendency on the working conditions in Hong Kong secondary schools * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01

  23. Table 6.12 Model 1 - Personal Model: Effects of personal characteristics on the retention tendency of English subject teachers in Hong Kong secondary schools Intercept= 6.696 R square= 0.107

  24. Table 6.15 Model 4: Effects of factors of compensation structure and working conditions on the retention tendency of English teachers in Hong Kong R Square = 0.111 Intercept = 5.306

  25. Discussion • The supply of English teachers for the teaching occupation in Hong Kong • The supply and demand of English teachers • Is the teaching occupation attractive to English subject teachers in Hong Kong? • Effect of gender on the supply of English teachers • Effects of teaching experience and teaching ranks • The stayers in the English teaching occupation

  26. 8.3 Policy implications • 1. The labour supply for teaching- professionally trained English teachers • Providing teacher education programmes for aspiring English teachers • Increasing the retention tendency of non-English major teachers • Professional development programmes for less experienced teachers • 2. Building up an incentive system for retaining teachers • Differential pay for teachers • Competencies pay for teachers • Promotion prospects of English teachers • 3. Improving the working conditions for teachers • Improve the classroom teaching and School support for English teachers • 4. Review and revision of compensation structure and salary schedules for teachers • Change in teachers’ qualifications and competencies

  27. 值得關注的問題 一、教師分流培訓 • 由以往文憑教師與位教師分流 改為小學、中學分流培訓 二、教師教育在高教中的比例: • 高中畢業生有多少會加入教師行業? • 大學畢業生有多少會加入教師行業? • FYFD 14,500 BED 700 PGDE(P) PGDE(S) AL 畢業生 30,000

  28. 值得關注的問題 三、教師行業的吸引性 • 減薪會否減低教師行業的吸引性? • 二人一職? 職級差異? 工作條件? 四、課改、科目改變對需求的影響: • 個別科目需求下降 • 教師再培訓以任教新的科目 • 有些科目市場價值較高,易流失 • 可否有酬報上的差異?