Dangers of Soy Presented by: Bruce Topping
History of Soy Foods • Soybeans originate in the Orient. • Soybeans were considered inedible until around 2500 years ago sometime during the Chou Dynasty in China. • Before that, soy was used in crop rotation as a nitrogen fixer
The Discovery of Fermentation • Ancient Chinese made a fermented food called “chiang” made by mixing animals foods like fish or meat • Sometime between 2nd century BC and 4th century AD this process was applied to soybeans and it became the precursor to miso. • Soy sauce was originally the liquid poured off during chiang production.
Fermented Soy Foods – The Traditional Way • Miso – paste made of fermented beans and grains - developed from primitive soupier version of “chiang” • Miso began to play important role in Japanese diet in 1100s under Samurai control. • Samurai popularized national cuisine of simplicity and frugality in which grains were the starring role.
Traditional Soy Foods • Soy Sauce – shoyu = juices from a fermented mixture of wheat and soy. • Long fermentation process made by adding mold spores from Aspergillus to mixture of roasted soybeans and cracked wheat. • Ferments for 6 – 18 months. Some versions use much longer ferments.
Modern “Soy Sauce”? • Most soy sauces sold in America are made in 2 days or less. (Far from traditional method!) • Modern versions use “acid hydrolysis” –heating defatted protein with hydrochloric acid for 8 – 12 hours, then neutralize acid with sodium carbonate. -chemical soy sauce. • Rapid hydrolysis method creates large amounts of unnatural form of glutamic acid that is found in MSG.
Traditional Fermented Soy “the good old soys” • Tempeh: Appeared around the 1600s. Most popular fermented food in Indonesia. Solid, chunky, meaty texture. • Indonesians had been making fermented coconut press for centuries • This technique was applied to soy. • Easy to digest, rich in B-vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and omega-3 fats, as well as molds, bacteria, and yeasts.
Tempeh Continued • Traditional Process for making Tempeh: -Boiled, drained, then hulled -soaked and pre-fermented for 24 hrs -boil again, then inoculate (Rhizopus oligosporus) -wrap in banana leaves and let ferment for 24 – 48 hours at room temperature. • Scientific study of traditional Tempeh finds: 69 species of mold, 78 species of bacteria, 150 species of yeast.
Natto • Natto – originated in Japan about 1,000 years ago. Fermented soy product with pungent odor, cheesy texture, slimy, sticky coat. • Great source of vitamin K2 • Soaked, boiled, steamed, and then fermented. Traditionally inoculated with Bacillus and then incubated in straw.
A Word about Tofu • Tofu was invented in China in 164 BC. • Not fermented – made by separating a puree of cooked soybeans into solids and liquid using magnesium chloride or epsom salts, then pressing the curds into solid cakes. • Developed as a protein source for vegetarian Buddhist monks • They found that it decreased libido and made their celibate lifestyle easier. (phytoestrogens can lower testosterone levels)
A Word about Tofu • By 700 AD tofu was accepted as a meat substitute by the general public if meat or seafood was not available or not affordable. • Otherwise, tofu was served as a condiment or in small amounts in fish broth.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Protease Inhibitors / Trypsin Inhibitors • Phytates • Isoflavones • Goitrogens • Saponins • Lectins • Oxalates • Manganese levels (for infants) • Allergens (known and unknown) • Oligosaccharides
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Trypsin Inhibitors and other Protease inhibitors: interfere with digestive enzymes protease and trypsin. Leads to overworked pancreas, gastric distress, poor protein digestion. • Most studies over the years by the USDA on protease inhibitors looked at soy, but they are found in many nuts, seeds, nightshade vegetables, etc. • Protease Inhibitors in soy are not only more numerous, but harder to neutralize. • Only Fermentation will come close to deactivating all of them. All other cooking methods will leave remaining trypsin inhibitors.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Protease inhibitors / Trypsin Inhibitors continued: • Pancreas is in greatest danger. When inhibitors affect trypsin + protease, body compensates by increasing number (hyperplasia) and size (hypertrophy) of pancreatic cells. • Many people say protease inhibitors aren’t a problem. Probably true for those that don’t eat soy excessively, are not infants, and don’t have digestive problems like low stomach HCl, celiac, bowel disease, etc.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Phytates: bind to minerals like zinc, iron, and calcium and keep them from being absorbed. • Phytates serve two functions in nature: • Prevent premature germination • Store phosphorous plants need to grow • Phytates are valuable to humans because they allow winter storage.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Phytates thought to be one of leading causes of poor growth, immune challenge, anemia, and other health woes in 3rd world • Phosphorous is plentiful in grains, but 50-75% of it is tied up in phytates and not readily bio-available. (Stunted growth can result if deficient)
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Isoflavones: plant estrogens (phytoestrogens) that act like the hormone estrogen in our bodies, affecting the reproductive and nervous systems. • Soy foods with highest levels of isoflavones are soy flours, grits, nuts, soy protein isolates and textured vegetable protein. TVP • Phytoestrogens exert their estrogenic effects directly and indirectly.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • One thing is clear: Soy Estrogens are not weak. • Isoflavones are potent endocrine disruptors when consumed in sufficient quantity.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Goitrogens: substances that block the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Can cause “goiter” which is swelling in the neck caused by enlarged thyroid gland. • Principal goitrogen in soy foods are the isoflavones, and possibly also the saponins. • Cooking and processing using heat, pressure, and alkaline solutions won’t neutralize isoflavones or saponins. Only solvents can do that.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • America is plagued by epidemic thyroid disorders. Many go un-detected. • Thyroid cancer statistics are sobering: incidences rose over 40% between 1975 – 1996. • Thyroid cancer one of the most common cancers among U.S. children and adolescents. • Thyroid disease is widespread in Japan, where soy consumption is the highest of any country in Asia.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Saponins - Bitter compounds that foam up like suds in water. • Saponins found in other beans, alfalfa, and many other plants. • Greatest danger is from damage to mucosal lining. • Cooking won’t have much effect on Saponins. Takes alcohol extraction to remove them. Or Fermentation! • Fermentation is the best way to deactivate saponins. Bacterial enzymes in our gut don’t break down saponins until the colon.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Lectins: proteins with a “sweet tooth” –help bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into roots of plants. Also makes plants useful for fertilizer when they die. Lectins are also called “hemaglutinins”. • Lectins “bite” into carbohydrates, especially sugars. Can cause leaky gut, immune system problems, blood clotting. -they agglutinate blood. 3 to 4 times more likely to move into bloodstream than other food proteins. • However, Lectins that are not deactivated will persist, and are not easily broken down by enzymes in our gut and can remain in digestive tract, acting like a cumulative time-bomb. • Research has shown lectins can cause shifts in gut flora favoring E. Coli
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Oxalates: prevent proper calcium absorption and linked to kidneys stones and vulvodynia. • Not Significantly neutralized by cooking. Highest sources are soy protein, spinach, rhubarb, pecans, carrots. • Oxalates don’t cause as much calcium binding as phytates, however some popular foods are high in both!
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Manganese: (A vital trace mineral) Soy Formula very high in manganese, 75 to 80 times higher than breast milk. Phytates actually do the infant a favor in this case, but not well enough. Can be problematic for adults, too. • Manganese toxicity linked to impairment of neurotransmitters and implicated in ADD/ADHD.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Allergen: Soy is one of the top 8 allergens • Allergies are an abnormal inflammatory reaction by the immune system. IgE and other immunoglobulins involved. • Intolerances to soy are not always caused by the immune system reactions but by unkown metabolic mechanisms. • Soybeans contain at least 16 allergenic proteins. Some researchers pinpoint as many as 30. • Soy is “hidden” in hamburgers and other “regular” foods, people often miss the connection.
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in Soy • Oligosaccharides: sugars that cause bloating and flatulence. • Require enzymes (alpha-galactosidase) to be properly digested, which humans do not make. • The result is that these sugar compounds get to the colon intact and are eaten up by colonic bacteria. Digestive fermentation takes place.
Reproductive Issues • Many plants have contraceptive effects. (known since 1926) • During 1940s sheep were diagnosed with “clover disease” caused from phytoestrogens in clover. • In female sheep, eating clover causes endometrial damage and changes in cervical mucous. Infertility often results • In 1980s female cheetahs were suffering liver damage caused by isoflavones in their soy feed. • “Diet rich in estrogens may well be one of the major factors in the decline of cheetah fertility in north american zoos. (experts reassured everyone that this was a cheetah problem, not a human problem. – cheetahs lack certain liver enzymes)
Benefits of Soy Fermentation • Almost completely deactivates protease inhibitors, Saponins, and Lectins. • Deactivates a large portion of the phytates • Gets rid of the oligosaccharides which cause gas • Increased levels of certain B-vitamins and vitamin K2.
Benefits of Soy Fermentation • Essential Fatty acids are not damaged during fermentation, and the Rhizopus strain of bacteria may produce GLA, an important omega-6 fatty acid. • Digestive aid – help facilitate the digestion of other foods eaten at the same time • Contain beneficial microorganisms that help combat food poisoning, and dysentery.
Benefits of Soy Fermentation • May help protect us from radiation poisoning including x-ray radiation according to research. • During WWII, a Japanese physician in Nagasaki named Dr. Akizuki was out of town the day of the bombing, and the hospital where he worked was destroyed. He returned to Nagasaki to treat survivors of the bombing. He and his staff ate miso soup together every day and never experienced any radiation sickness, despite their proximity to the fallout.
Important Point to Remember • Asians do not eat any soy foods in great quantity! (unless forced to do so by famine or poverty) • They are used as condiments and flavoring agents (not meat replacements) and rarely more than once a day. • The Japanese average 8.6 grams of soy protein per day. Well below the US government recommendation of 25 grams per day.
Soy in the West • Soy was brought to western countries by missionaries, and other travelers to the orient. • Soy foods were generally not popular with western palates with the exception of soy sauce. • Soy was used in crop rotation, but not much else until about 1930
Soy in the West • Around 1930 soy started to have some influential supporters. • John Harvey Kellog, M.D. – Ardent vegetarian, promoted soyfoods as meat substitutes. • Henry Ford – promoted soyfoods, soy plastics, soybean fiber cloth • Adolf Hitler – promoted soybeans, vegetarianism, and natural foods • Mussolini – wanted to add soy flour to polenta
Soy in the West • Few soybeans sold as whole food products. Focus is on soy for industry and processed foods. • Americans for the most part don’t seem to mind that industry has slipped “invisible” soys into every supermarket food imaginable. • Now perceived as “healthful” additive.
How Soy Became “Health Food” • By 1962 soy oil had captured over 50% of U.S. cooking & salad oil market. • Manufacture of “vegetable oil” leaves a lot of leftover protein. Industry needed to create a use for this surplus of byproduct.
How Soy Became “Health Food” • Soy protein makes an excellent fertilizer, but the petrochemicals had that market cornered already. • Only so much can be fed to animals • Soy industry wanted to get into human market, but soy had a terrible image problem. • In a clever move, industry solved two problems at once while creating a revenue stream out of these surplus byproducts • Soy Industry decided to make soy a health food and aimed for affluent people. • Soybean Industry sponsored many studies, public relations efforts are superb. Made sure to publicize any study showing benefit.
Non-Fermented Soy Foods:New Era of Soy • Soy milk, soy cheese, soy ice-cream, soy flour – and the more obvious products: soy nuts, soynut butter. • The problem with most of these products is that toxins and anti-nutrients are still present and most people don’t care for the taste. • None of these products were widely used in Asian countries.
Modern Soy Foods • Modern soymilks use highly acidic solutions for speed, and cook the beans in a pressure cooker. To cover up “beaniness”, they add sugar. • Soy “yogurts” and “puddings” usually contain carrageenan, a thickener from red seaweed. Many years assumed safe, but linked to ulcerations and malignancies in G.I. tract of animals. (taste tasters describe as “awful” • Soy “Cheese” often will state “cholesterol free” but many are still loaded with hydrogenated fats. Taste reviews of casein-free versions are usually “horrible” • Soy “ice creams” is basically water, sugar, corn oil, soy protein isolate or tofu, and then more sugar makes up the rest of the ingredients, often HFCS. (Some do taste good) • Soy Flour: added to Many, many foods and widely used in general today as an egg substitute and to moisten the final product –retaining an illusion of freshness.
Modern Soy Foods • Approximately 60% of all packaged food products will contain soy ingredients. • Fast food is near 100% - will usually be found in the bun, the burger, the mayo, the fries, everything. • Most commercial breads today contain small amounts of soy flour, not labeled as soy products. • Soy often “hiding” in chopped meat mixes.
Highly Refined Soy Products • Textured Soy Protein (TSP or TVP): Made by forcing defatted soy flour through an extruder. Has a long shelf-life and is used as a meat replacement or extender. • Soy Protein Concentrate: made from defatted soy flakes by “precipitating the solids with aqueous acid, aqueous alcohol, moist heat and/or organic solvents”.
Highly Refined Soy Products • Soy Protein Isolate: Used in almost all the processed foods seen in grocery stores, muscle man powders, and main ingredient in soy infant formulas. • Made by mixing defatted soy meal with a caustic alkaline solution to remove the fiber, then washing with an acid solution to precipitate out protein. Protein curds are dipped in another alkaline solution and spray dried at extremely high temperatures. • Used for binder + sealer of cardboard boxes.
Highly Refined Soy Products • High heat, pressure, acids and alkalis used in manufacture leave toxic residues, damage proteins, and form new toxic compounds: • Nitrosamines: damage the liver and are mutagens and carcinogens. • Lysinoalanine: cross-linked amino acid produced when amino acid lysine is subjected to strong alkaline treatments. Linked to kidney damage.
Highly Refined Soy Products • Excitotoxins: Amino acids that damage neuroreceptors in the brain. Glutamate and aspartate are formed during manufacture of hydrolyzed vegetable protein and commercial soy sauce. • Heterocyclic Amines: mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds • Cholorpropanols: linked to liver cancer • Hexane: Organic solvent toxic to the lungs and nervous system, linked to Parkinson’s disease. Residues remain in soyfoods after processing.
Soy Formula • Never used traditionally as an infant food in Asia. • Soy is just as common an allergen as milk • High levels of soy isoflavones can disrupt the infants developing endocrine system, nervous system, and immune system.
Soy Formula • Contains aluminum levels 10 times greater than milk-based formula and 100 times greater than breast milk. • Contains toxins formed during processing as well as undesirable additives and preservatives.
Soy Formula • Different fatty acid profile than breast milk: no EPA and DHA important for proper brain development. • Leads to lower immune system function and more infections. • Use sucrose and corn syrup instead of lactose which is vital to nervous system development. • Phytates in soy formula prevent good absorption of minerals like calcium, zinc, iron, and copper.
Soy Formula • Soy formula contains high levels of manganese from the soybean itself. Infants cannot eliminate excess levels because of immature livers. • Soy formula can lead to poor growth caused by low levels of methionine and protease inhibitors remaining after manufacture. • “Exclusive use of infant soy formula is the equivalent of consuming one or two birth control pills daily, on an estrogenic basis” -- environmental toxicologist Mike Fitzpatrick
Soy Oil • Soy oil was sometimes extracted in Asian countries and used for lamp oil, soap, greasing axles, and lubricating machinery. • Soy oil was very rarely used as a cooking oil because of unpleasant smell and taste. • Traditional fats used for cooking in China include lard, sesame oil, peanut oil, and rapeseed oil.
Soy Oil • Higher in Omega-3 fats than some oils (8% of the unsaturated fat is omega-3) • Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is 6.5: 1 – less than ideal • Most of the omega-3 fats are lost or damaged in processing. • Soy Oil: Polyunsaturated = 61% (very prone to rancidity), Monounsaturated = 23%, Saturated = 15%.
Soy Oil • Extracting soy oil involves grinding and crushing the beans then extracting using high temperature, intense pressure, and chemical solvents. • The process causes exposure to light, heat, and oxygen • Rancid oils taste and smell horrible, so the oil is then refined at high temperatures, deodorized, and lightly hydrogenated.