Leaving No Child Behind (or out of school): Effective Approaches to Preventing Poor School and Community Outcomes and Promoting Healthy Development David Osher, Ph.D. Center for Effective Collaboration & Practice, The American Institutes for Research www.air.org/cecp
Outline • Resources • Leave No Child Behind • Relationship Between Schools, Communities, & Effective Prevention Strategies • 3 Level Approach • Choosing Evidence-based Interventions • 14 Ingredients
www.air.org/cecp Where To Go For: Resources, Links, Overheads, & Updates
Center For Effective Collaboration & Practice • Safe, Drug Free, & Effective Schools: What Works • Addressing Student Problem Behavior (3 parts plus video) • Teaching and Working With Children with Emotional and Behavioral Challenges (Sopris West) • Early Warning, Timely Response • Safeguarding Our Children: An Action Guide • Safe, Supportive, & Successful Schools: Step by Step (Sopris West) • Promising Practices in Children’s Mental Health (13 vols.) • Exploring the Relationship between and Juvenile Justice Outcomes (7 vols.).
Relevant AIR TA & Research Centers • Behavioral Health Technical Assistance Center (SAMHSA) • Safe and Drug Free School Coordinators TA Center (SDFS) • Neglected and Delinquent Youth TA & Evaluation Center (Office of Elementary and Secondary Education) • Technical Assistance Partnership for Child and Family Mental Health (SAMHSA) • Center for Integrating Prevention and Education Research (NIH).
Relevant AIR Evaluation Studies • Gates Small School Initiative • California Class-size Initiative • Eisenhower Professional Development Program • Consumer’s Guide to School Reform • Alternative Education • Early Childhood Behavior • AIR-LFA Partnership.
The Logic of Leaving No Child Behind Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Nebraska
The Old View I: Blame the Fish Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Nebraska
The Old View II: Blame the Fish’s Mother, Family, or Community Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Nebraska
Key Provisions in relationship to Principles of Effectiveness & Coordinated 3-Level Approach • Increased Accountability (see Performance Measures; Evaluation & Chapter 1) • Annual testing 3-8 • Annual statewide progress objectives • Disaggregate by • Poverty • Race • Ethnicity • Disability • LEP • States required to establish uniform data system on school safety & drug use.
Key Provisions in relationship to Principles of Effectiveness & Coordinated 3-Level Approach • Focus on Evidenced-Based Interventions (see Effective, Science-based Strategies & Appendix A) • Specifies Principles of Effectiveness • E.g., What Works Clearing House.
Leaving No Child Behind: Key Provisions • Parental & Student Choice (see Parent & Community Involvement & Chapters 1, 3) • Academic Failure • Persistently Dangerous Schools • Victims of Violent Crime.
Leaving No Child Behind: Other Relevant Provisions • Expansion of School Counseling Demonstration Programs to Secondary School • Expansion of who can “counsel” • Counseling where students need it – not just at school • SDF $, After-school $, school emergency assistance $ can be used for counseling and mental health services.
Leaving No Child Behind: Key Provisions • Increased Flexibility (see Risk & Protective & Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4) • Transfer to Title 1 or other programs < 50% of monies under : • Teacher Quality State Grants • Safe and Drug-Free Schools • Innovative Programs • Educational Technology.
Relationship Between Schools, Communities, & Effective Prevention Strategies
Does Prevention Make a Difference? Impact of Good Behavior Game in 1st & 2nd Grade on most aggressive children at ages 19-21.
Where to Look • Risk Factors • Individual • Social (Family, Peers) • Institutional (Schools; Facilities) • Societal • Protective Factors • Individual • Social • Institutional • Societal
Societal Macrosystems Proximal Social Contexts Close Interpersonal Relations Individual Factors Where To Intervene ? A nested ecological system of influences on youth behavior. Adapted from “Prevention of Delinquency: Current status and issues” by P. H. Tolan and N. G. Guerra, 1994, Applied and Preventive Psychology, 3, p. 254.
Where to Intervene Youth Development Prevention Child Welfare Justice Heath Schools Substance Abuse Services Mental Health Recreation 18
DEVELOPMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY: directed at early proximal targets COMMUNITY PREVENTION: directed at community & school proximal targets INTEGRATED STRATEGIES MORE IMMEDIATE RISK: directed at more recent proximal targets COMMUNITY / SOCIETAL: directed at policies & laws as proximal targets PREVENTION OVER TIME AND SPACE: INTEGRATING PREVENTION SCIENCE STRATEGIES Sheppard G. Kellam, M.D.
Do Teachers Have an Impact? The Impact of First Grade Teacher Capacity on 7th Grade Behavior (Kellam, Ling, Merisca, Brown, & Ialongo, 1998)
Do Principals Have an Impact? Advancement Project, 2000
Does Race Have an Impact? South Carolina School Crime Incident Report, 1998-99
Principal Teacher Mental Health Professional Student Support Team School-wide Team Linking School Safety & School Improvement Dwyer & Osher, 2000
Address the Whole Child • Understand the Links Between Psychological, Social, Ethical, and Academic Development • Improve Learning Improve Behavior • Improve Behavior Improve Learning
Connect with Every Child: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) • Students who Feel Connected: • Less likely to use alcohol or substances • Experience less emotional distress • Attempt suicide less • Engage in less deviant and violent behavior • Blum, 2001
Intensive Intervention Some Early Intervention All Foundation Universal Intervention Building Blocks Few
All Universal Interventions The Logic of Universal Intervention • You cannot identify all at risk • Children affect each others’ behavior and development • No stigma • No self-fulfilling prophecies • No homogenous grouping • Per Child Cost Less.
Connect with Every Child • Small schools; • Well managed classrooms; • Positive (not harsh) discipline policies; • Overlapping and integrated social groups; • Impact of the Child Development Project • See Every Child Learning: Safe and Supportive Schools (Learning First Alliance) • See Child Development Project (Appendix A). Blum, 2001
Support Family-School Collaboration • Valuing all families; • Effective outreach (e.g., FAST); • Culturally competent approaches (e.g.,Lincoln Elementary School, Salt Lake City); • Support for family participation (e.g., Keyes for Networking); and • Positive interactions with families (e.g., Cleveland Elementary School, Tampa, FL).
Teach Social-Emotional & Problem Solving Skills • Teach, model, practice, coach, reinforce, generalize • PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) • Second step • Stop and think • “Stop and teach” (George Bailey) • Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP) • Culturally competent approaches(e.g., Gwen Cartledge) • See Safe & Sound • See PATHS; Second Step; I Can Problem Solve etc. (Appendix A)
Provide Positive Behavioral Supports • High behavioral standards and strong supports for students and adults to realize these standards; • Workable school and classroom behavior plans; • Positive behavioral strategies; • Supporting appropriate behaviors (e.g., Helping students stay on task); and • Teaching and modeling skills.
Provide Engaging and Appropriate Instruction • High academic standards and strong supports for students and adults to realize these standards; • Strong curricula approaches; • Strong teaching approaches (e.g., Class-Wide Peer Tutoring); • Engaging curricula and teaching; • Culturally competent curricula and teaching; • Individualization; and • Use of multiple modalities (individual, group, experiential, technology, etc.).
Selective Indicated Early Intervention Selective interventions for individuals who is a member of a subgroup of the population whose risk of illness or poor outcomes is above average (e.g., single teenage mothers) Indicated interventions for individuals who exhibit a risk factor or condition that identifies them, individually, as being at high risk for the development of illness or poor outcomes
Early Intervention Models & Examples • High Scope Preschool Curriculum • Regional Intervention Program (RIP) • First Step to Success • Primary Mental Health Project • Functional Assessment (See Addressing Student Problem Behaviors) • Effective Mentoring • STEP • PACT (Positive Adolescent Choices Training)
Impact of Combined Selective InterventionSocial Development Research Group (Public Schools in Seattle High Crime Areas) • Intervention • Teacher training (5 days in service grades 1-6) • Developmentally Appropriate Parent education (grades 1-3, 5-6) • Social competence training for children (grades 1, 6) • Impact at age 18 (compared to nonrandomized controls) • Less • anti social behavior (Violence/Delinquency: 48%: 60%) • Heavy Drinking: 15%: 26% • School Misbehavior (p=.02) • More • Commitment to school (p=.03) • Attachment to school (p=.006) • Academic Achievement (p= .01) Hawkins,1999
Intensive Intervention and Treatment • Individualized • Address multiple risk factors & cross multiple domains • Linguistically & culturally competent • Child & family driven • Intensive & sustained.
Intensive Interventions • Wraparound • MST • Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care • Appropriate Medication Management.
Criteria for Selecting Interventions • The program must have documented effectiveness and be based on sound theory • The program can be easily integrated with existing school practices. • The program must have data that demonstrates effectiveness or ineffectiveness with particular student groups. • Data must indicate that the program has a positive impact on student achievement. • Program developers/sponsors must demonstrate that subscribing schools receive sufficient technical assistance. • Program components must focus on promoting positive solutions to behavioral and emotional problems.
Intervention Selection Calculus • X Intervention works with • Y Students • In Z context • When you do: • a • b • c
Becoming Core & Going to Scale Sustainability Effectiveness Efficacy Moving From Research to Practice: Institutionalizing Changes in Structure, Practice, Culture Sustaining System-, Community-, State-wide
14 Ingredients of School Improvement (Safe, Successful, & Supportive Schools: Step by Step) • Address the needs of your school and community • Be strategic and comprehensive • Be systemic • Don’t do it alone • Understand and manage change • Build a learning community
14 Ingredients of School Improvement • Involve the entire community • Value and address diversity • Assess and address your strengths and challenges • Take time to choose evidence-based programs and practices
14 Ingredients of School Improvement • Build capacity • Employ Data • Evaluate outcomes • Focus on the long haul .