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Writing in the Content Areas: Making Connections

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    1. Writing in the Content Areas: Making Connections Presented by Sue Z. Beers suebeers@netins.net

    3. The Connection Between Reading and Writing Reflection: What are the benefits of having students write about what they are learning in the content area?

    4. The Big Picture: How are you Connecting? Learning Process Instruction Content Kids

    5. CLICK it KIDS

    6. CLICK it LEARNING PROCESS

    7. CLICK it CONTENT

    8. CLICK it INSTRUCTION

    9. So how are you clickin for kids? Lets look at what we need to remember about reading and writing

    10. The Big Six National Reading Panel Monitoring comprehension metacognition Using graphic and semantic organizers Answering questions Generating questions Recognizing story/text structure Summarizing But there are some missing

    11. 5 Missing Pillars of Reading Instruction Access to interesting texts and choice in text read Matching kids with appropriate text Reading and writing has a reciprocal positive effect Classroom organization: Limit whole class teaching Availability of expert tutoring

    12. READING NEXT: 15 Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy Programs

    13. READING

    14. If you want students to learn your subject area, they need to be able to become competent readers of the subject area text.If you want students to learn your subject area, they need to be able to become competent readers of the subject area text.

    15. Components of the Reading Process

    17. WRITING

    18. Reasons to ask students to write: To clarify their thinking about what theyve learned To think deeply and clearly about the subject To communicate what theyve learned To explore, extend and cement ideas To record learning To evaluate the learning process To explain ideas To apply whats been learned to new situations and problems To evaluate what theyve learned To organize new information To make connections between what they know and what they are learning To build confidence about their knowledge of the subject

    19. Helping students become authors of their own learning Provide extended periods of time to organize, draft and revise writing Let students choose own topics and formats Monitor student work frequently and cause them to think deeply Model teachers own writing, sharing insights and struggles Provide frameworks and ideas Provide a variety of audiences Share student work so they learn from one another Encourage students to bring in their own prior knowledge Evaluate for content and how well the writing communicates to the reader Allow students to find their own voice and style Acknowledge that some writing is casual and informal and some writing is formal provide various purposes

    21. A Look at Current Practice

    22. Student Difficulties in Reading and Writing

    23. Making the Reading / Writing Connection in Instruction Content: What do I want kinds to learn? Thinking: What kind of thinking will be required? Reading: What text will be used to help students obtain or reinforce needed knowledge or skills? Strategies / Tools: Which reading strategies / tools will be used to help students process the text? Which tools match the intended learning and the kind of thinking needed? Writing: How will students communicate / share what they have learned? How can they use writing to reflect on the learning?

    26. Writing Purposes: Thinking on Paper Compare and Contrast Describe Sequence / Order Persuade Cause and Effect Problems and Solutions Reflection

    27. 1) Understand new vocabulary Beware of using technical jargon that the reader wont understand Consider the background and prior knowledge of the intended audience Build in enough details to help the reader understand any new vocabulary, e.g. provide context clues Other ideas?

    28. To Improve Vocabulary Engage students in wide reading about your subject matter content and content of their choice. Provide direct instruction in terms that are critical to their understanding of your content. Assure both verbal and nonlinguistic representations in learning the vocabulary terms Encourage elaboration and refinement of understanding the terms. Dont overload the number of terms focus on key vocabulary.

    29. 2) Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning Combine what is already known with new information to create a new meaning or interpretation Use examples to help the reader make connections Consider the background and prior knowledge of the audience Other ideas?

    30. 3) Think ahead to what might be coming Use enough details to help the reader make predictions Consider how the audience will make predictions get into their heads to see how theyll interpret what was written Other ideas?

    31. 4) Continually evaluate own understanding of the text Ask frequently: Am I making sense? Will my reader be able to make sense of what I am writing? Use headings and subheadings to signal the reader to pause and reflect on what is understood or what is confusing Other ideas?

    32. 5) Create images of what is read Use vivid words that help the reader see what is being described Include visual elements such as charts or graphs Include sensory descriptors Use examples for clarity Other ideas?

    33. 6) Periodically summarize what is read Address one key issue at a time by writing about one idea or issue in a paragraph Use enough details to help the reader understand what is being written Use headings and subheadings to break the text into logical chunks Keep in mind the purpose of the writing Other ideas?

    34. 7) Use text cues, visuals and organization Use text formatting to extend meaning, such as bold-face type, underlining, etc. Use appropriate key signal words to indicate the structure of the writing Write clearly so the text is legible Other ideas?

    35. 8) Have a plan for how to approach the task Use a writing assignment plan to organize ideas before starting to write Pick an appropriate reading or writing tool to use to process and organize the information Define the audience, purpose, structure and vocabulary to be used before starting to write Develop an outline or storyboard for the content to be included in the writing Other ideas?

    36. The Purposes of Writing Compare / Contrast Describe Sequence / Order Persuade Cause and Effect Problem and Solution Reflection

    37. INFORMAL WRITING ASSIGNMENTS ARE: typically ungraded and/or not letter graded; used to develop and understand student comprehension; used to help students develop ideas; effective starting points for more formal writing; useful for encouraging student engagement; and a good opportunity to become familiar with students voice. WITHOUT THE PRESSURE OF FORMAL GRADING

    38. FORMAL WRITING ASSIGNMENTS ARE: typically letter graded; finished thoughts and polished text which emphasize both content and form; good methods of assessing student learning; useful for encouraging students to think about audience; ways to develop more extensive critical thinking, reading, and writing; and outcomes of informal writing. WITH THE PRESSURE OF FORMAL GRADING