What is your understanding of Attachment • An emotional bond ( between care giver and care receiver) • A lasting psychological connection between human beings. • Responsive parent (to infants needs) • Safe haven (when feels threatened can return for comfort and soothing) • Secure base (dependable base for child to explore world. • Mothers who are available and reponsive
Reciprocity(first described )Brazelton 1974 • Interaction between adult and baby • Mechanism by which attachment is formed includes reciprocity • Parent – child relationships are usually reciprical • From birth ( perhaps before) mother & baby learn how to interact with each other • Sort of ‘dance’ ( normal mother-child relationship) SIGHT, TOUCH, VOCAL • Reciprocity is a fundamental building block for our relationships.
Attachment • Many people have written a great deal about AT • Most prominent writers are J.Bowlby and M. Ainsworth • Reading list (handout) • Bowlby believed earliest bonds formed between children & caregivers have tremendous impact that continues throughout life. • Arousal and relaxation cycle • Central theme of Attachment is that mothers are available & responsive & establish sense of security for their child. Providing a secure base to explore the world • SEE ASSESSMENT TRIANGLE • Attachment is based on the need for security, safety and protection during infancy. This is crucial for the developing child. • Research over the past 30 years has shown effects of attachment on development, social competence, mental & physical health.
What factors might lead to poor attachment ? Very young single mothers or where a parent is absent Children with birth difficulties/ disfigurements Carers who have had poor attachment themselves High levels of stress Postnatal depression Substance misuse Indifferent/ poor parenting A parent who does not recognise child’s needs and puts their needs first
How would poor attachment impact on a Primary School child ? • May not show guilt on breaking laws • Project blame onto others • Exhibits poor control • Has poor attention span • Sees self as undeserving • Sees self as incapable of change • Has difficulty having fun • Lacks trust in others • Has impaired social maturity • Has trouble recognising own feelings • Demands affection but lacks depth in relationships
Continued (cognitive problems) • Experiences problems with logical thinking • Appears to have confused thought processes • Has difficulty thinking ahead Developmental problems • Difficulty with auditory processing • Difficulty expressing self verbally • May have gross motor problems • May experience delays in personal- social development • May have delays in fine motor adaptive skills
POSSITIVE EFFECTS OF ATTACHMENT • Attain his/her full intellectual potential • Think logically • Develop social emotions • Develop a conscience • Trust others • Become self-reliant • Cope better with stress and emotions • Reduce feelings of jelousy • Overcome common fears and worries • Increase feelings of self-worth
Conclusion • Attachment theory can provide a helpful model for the analysis of the relationship difficulties of families, but it can also allow for change, through new healthy attachments. If a child has as least one warm, positive attachment in their life it could make a difference.