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Repair Methods of the Window and the Door Structures. Rak-43.3313 Repair Methods of Structures, exercise (4 cr) Esko Sistonen. Legislation. The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED 2012/27/EU) http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:315:0001:0056:EN:PDF
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Repair Methods of the Window and the Door Structures Rak-43.3313 Repair Methods of Structures, exercise (4 cr) Esko Sistonen
Legislation • The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED 2012/27/EU) • http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:315:0001:0056:EN:PDF • CHAPTER II, EFFICIENCY IN ENERGY USE, Article 4, Building renovation ‘Identification of cost-effective approaches to renovations relevant to the building type and climatic zone’. ‘A first version of the strategy shall be published by 30 April 2014 and updated every three years thereafter and submitted to the Commission as part of the National Energy Efficiency Action Plans’.
Water leaking as a result of small inclination of weather strip, and unworkable details (e.g. rip moulding) The living room ceiling paint flakes off as a result of the structural and window frame leaks Paint of a boarding of a garage door peels off strongly
1900s • art Nouveau, 20th-century classicism and functionality • 1950s window equipped with a non-symmetrical vertically divided • connected framework • 60's triple framework (internal framework interconnected) • 1960s: • thermal windows, gas-filled thermal windows • selective glasses, self-cleaning windows, wood-aluminum windows • supply air windows, energy-efficient windows, four-glass (double glazed) windows http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/energy-efficient-windows
Colder areas visualised with a thermographic camera Black White
Adding a new window Inward opening two-leaf three-glass window. Within the inner two glass vacuum glass element (MSE). http://www.julkisivuyhdistys.fi/julkkari2/juko/kansio.html
1. Glass with thermal insulation. 2. Argon gas. 3. Seal. 4. Spacing frame filled with moisture absorbing granules. 5. Glass - choice of clear, tinted or opaque. All of these can be standard glass or laminated. 6. Light reflecting. 7. Light. 8. Energy loss. 9. Light received. 10. Room temperature. 11. Temperature retained. http://www.windowswindows.com.au/glaze.htm
It has got photo-catalytic and hydrophilic properties, and works in two stages: (Stage 1)The coating reacts with natural daylight to break down and loosen organic dirt (Stage 2) When it rains, instead of forming droplets, the water spreads evenly over the surface of the glass, forming a thin film and helping to wash away any dirt and reduce streaks. http://www.pilkington.com/products/bp/bybenefit/selfcleaning/how+it+works.htm
Checkpoints: • Surface treatment of wooden parts • The inner paint layer • The outside paint layer • Structural wood rot damage • Puttying and moldings • Fittings • Water sill • Equipment: • knife • peak • gauge • mirror • smoke sign • hygrometer (surface, wood moisture peak meter) • surface temperature gauge • thermographic Camera
Old windows • Window Glass: • Window Glass from Middle Age to the early 1900s: • crown glass • blown cylinder glass • mirror glass i.e. ground-glass • Today, window panes are made of so-called float-method (cast on molten tin) • Window frames: • 1700s • the late 1700's wood frames ousted the lead • Number of window panes decreased • 1800s • Empire • Gothic Revival, the Swiss, new renaissance • double-glazed windows came to Finland • T-frame • Health-window • inward opening windows
Window condition assessment • The functionality of window • draught performance (cold surface of the glass, joint leakage from the gap of the window frame and the built-in frame or the wall and the built-in frame ) • what is the window tightness (built-in frames and window frames) • occurrence of vapour and ice in glass surfaces • whether sound insulation, and thermal insulation is sufficient • the window opens / closes properly (adequate gap) • Window technical condition • whether the framework is rigid • whether the window glass is tightly closed connected to the window frame • whether fittings and angle irons are in good condition, is there a visible corrosion • acting locking mechanism • whether damage to paint finish • Whether rot in wooden parts • whether the water board or sheet metal damage, is there signs of water leaks in to the structures
Typical repair methods: -Local repair methods -Maintenance methods: surface treatment,.. -New part on top of the old one -Demolition of the old one and installing the new one In conserved building windows repair and renewal to be taken into account: Appearance of the windows must not be changed. Sometimes not to be added a third glass. In renovations to be used hand-made window glasses, if those have been in the building in the past.
Window maintenance repairs • Standard painting of the old windows • Inspection every two years, re-paint if necessary, re-paint of the lower parts four to five years, the replacement of the whole painting of 6-10 years • Window surfaces treated with wood preservatives requires new treatment every 2-4 years • Window puttying renewal, ordinary linseed oil putty’s service life is a few years • Replacement of wooden glazing mouldings • Matching oppressive window frames by planing • Tightening, replacement and oiling hinges and fittings • seals replacement • Sealing the gap between the wall and and the built-in frame
Window partly replacement can be done in the following ways: - Installing extra frame - Glass replacement with thermal glazing - Installing exchange frame In completely renew old window structure is removed completely and replaced with a new window. With inlet air vent to be improved ventilation performance. Typical accessories include: - Open-air valve installation - Installation of window blinds as well as - To install insect screens
Energy efficiency regulations for renovation work (27.02.2013) • Requirements for structural elements (thermal transmittance) • External wall: Ureq = 0.5*Uoriginal or Umax = 0.17 W/(m2K) • Roof: Ureq = 0.5*Uoriginal or Umax = 0.09 W/(m2K) • Windows and doors: New, Umax = 1.0 W/(m2K). Old, decreasing heat loss in repair actions, if possible • Base floor: Energy efficiency is improved if possible • Requirements for technical systems • Yearly efficiency of heat recovery ventilation: hmin = 0.45 • Characteristic electric power of fan assisted supply and exhaust ventilation system Wmax = 2.0 W/(m3/s) • Characteristic electric power of fan assisted exhaust ventilation system Wmax = 1.0 W/(m3/s) • Characteristic electric power of Air-conditioning system Wmax = 2.5 W/(m3/s) • Efficiency of heating systems are improved during modernization, if possible • The renewal of water and / or sewer systems shall apply with enacted law of the new building.
Energy efficiency requirements for renovation work (27.02.2013) • Requirements for energy consumption of building • Detached house: E ≤ 180 kWh/m2 • Block of flats: E ≤ 130 kWh/m2 • Office buildings E ≤ 145 kWh/m2 • … • Requirements for energy efficiency E-value [kWh/m2] • Detached house: Ereq ≤ 0.8*Ecalc • Block of flats: Ereq ≤ 0.85*Ecalc • Office buildings Ereq ≤ 0.7*Ecalc. • … • http://www.finlex.fi/data/normit/40799-EU_27_2_2013YM__asetus_lopullinen_FIN.pdf • http://www.investinfinland.fi/articles/news/new-energy-efficiency-regulations-for-renovation-work-in-finland/2-870
Low energy renovation 900 mm Coefficient of thermal transmittance, U [W/m2/K] Thickness of the insulation layer, d [mm]
What is reasonable payback period? • Efficient heat recovery in ventilation • Renewal of windows • Additional thermal insulation of the building façade
Examples of Related Publications / Projects • Saari, et al. (2010). Sustainable energy – Final report (In Finnish) http://buildtech.aalto.fi/fi/julkaisut/julkaisusarjat/julkaisu_b24/ • TES EnergyFaçade – prefabricated timber based building system for improving the energy efficiency of the building envelope http://tesenergyfacade.com/downloads/TES_Manual-ebookFINAL.pdf • Multifunctional timberbased element systems for improving energy efficiency of the building envelope http://www.smarttes.com/ • TES Energy Façade – Final Report http://www.tesenergyfacade.com/downloads/tkk_tes_loppuraportti_2009.pdf • Varjonen, J-M. (2012). The effects of consultation stage energy efficiency requirements for renovation work in the stock build in 1960-1970. Master’s Thesis. (In Finnish) • Fränti, M. (2012). Improving energy efficiency of Detached housing stock from the 1900s and factors affecting them. Master’s Thesis. (In Finnish) • Tähtinen, L. (2010). Energy-Efficient Façade Renovation of an Office Building Master’s Thesis. (In Finnish) • Piironen, et al. (2003). Life Cycle of Repair Works of Rock Based Facades. TKK-TRT-125. (In Finnish) http://tkk-legacy.aalto.fi/Yksikot/Talo/julk.htm
Several internet links http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/leadstainedglass/lead_stained_glass.htm http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/windows/thermal.htm http://www.dublincity.ie/Planning/HeritageConservation/Conservation/Documents/Windows%20-%20A%20Guide%20to%20the%20Repair%20of%20Historic%20Windows%202007.pdf http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/corporate/windows_doors.pdf http://www.rakennusmedia.fi/Shop.aspx?id=1091&c=5&p=1354 http://www.pilkington.com/products/bp/downloads/byproduct/selfcleaning/default.htm http://www.pilkington.com/en-gb/uk/householders/replacement-glazing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Window http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Door http://www.nba.fi/fi/File/127/korjauskortti-8.pdf http://www.nba.fi/fi/File/128/korjauskortti-9.pdf http://restaurointikuvasto.nba.fi/restkuvasto/asp/rakosakuvahaku.asp?kuvaus_id=53
Several standards… • SFS-EN-12519:en (May 2004). Windows and pedestrian doors. Terminology. • SFS-EN-1027:en (December 2000). Windows and doors. Watertightness. Test method. • SFS-EN 12207:en (Mars 2000). Windows and doors. Air permeability. Classification. • SFS-EN 12519:en (May 2004). Windows and pedestrian doors. Terminology. • SFS-EN ISO 10077-2 (September 2012). Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters - Calculation of thermal transmittance - Part 2: Numerical method for frames (ISO 10077-2:2012)