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Water Quality Issues from Dairy Farms in the Northeast PowerPoint Presentation
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Water Quality Issues from Dairy Farms in the Northeast

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Water Quality Issues from Dairy Farms in the Northeast

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  1. Water Quality Issues from Dairy Farms in the Northeast Peter Wright, State Conservation Engineer Natural Resources Conservation Service Syracuse NY Curt Gooch, PRO-DAIRY Environmental Specialist Cornell University

  2. Dairy Farm Polluted Water Sources Concentrated Sources: Waste Wash water Barnyard runoff Silage Leachate Manure Storage Spreading

  3. Concentrated Sources • Amounts and concentrations vary • daily • seasonally • from farm to farm • They can be Managed • When Rain Driven the impact is less • diluted • not observed

  4. Concentrations

  5. Annual Load from Concentrated Sources

  6. Conclusions • Concentrated sources need to be controlled • Prevention is key • Look for low cost alternatives to treatment

  7. Prevention • Eliminate • Reduce • Reuse

  8. Wash Water Reduction • Eliminate Leaks and Spills • Manually rinse or scrape first • Reuse gray water • Design system for easy cleaning

  9. Quantities • Range 1-40 gal/cow/day • Typical 2-5 gal/cow/day

  10. Reduce at the Source • Feed Milk • First flush • Colostrum, treated milk • Scrape Manure • Parlor and holding area floors • Correct Soap Amounts • No Precooler Water

  11. Treatment • Aerobic – with oxygen • Low odors • Fast rate • By products • - Carbon dioxide and water

  12. Treatment • Anaerobic – without oxygen • Odors produced • Slow rate • By products • - plug soil pores

  13. Liquid Manure System • Advantages • Easy • Low pollution potential • Helps manure flow • Disadvantages • More to haul • Larger storage needed

  14. Liquid Manure System • 1,000 gal. of milkhouse wastes may contain: • 1.67 lbs. Nitrogen • 0.83 lbs. Phosphorus • 2.50 lbs. Potassium • 5.00 lbs. of nutrients @ $0.25/lb. = $1.25 • Spreading costs: • 1,000 gallons @ $0.005 per gal. = $5.00

  15. Grass Filter • Advantages • Lower cost • Efficient treatment • Small space • Disadvantages • Needs O&M • Extreme cold weather problems

  16. Settling Tank and Pump

  17. Milking Center Waste • Estimated Nitrogen Fate • Immobilized Soil OM 21% • Denitrified 30% • Crop Uptake 32% • Leaching 17% • Total 100%

  18. Milking Center Waste • Estimated Nitrogen Fate • Immobilized Soil OM 68 Lbs. • Denitrified 98 Lbs. • Crop Uptake 104 Lbs. • Leaching 55 Lbs. • Total 325 Lbs.N/Acre • 1.3 Lbs N/cow /year 250 Cows

  19. Barnyards • Eliminate • Reduce the size • Reduce the runoff • Exclude outside water • Pavement increases runoff • Vital to control runoff flow

  20. NRCS Standard • Source Control • Scrape, time in barnyard, waterers • Solid removal • 15 minutes of 2 yr 24 hr rainfall • Cleaned out • Filter area larger of: • 15 min. flow time for 25 yr 24 hr storm 0.5 inches deep OR • 500Lbs N per acre per year

  21. Abuse Areas • Purpose? • Increased loading • Fences can be moved • Image

  22. Barnyards • Sized correctly • Clean surface water diverted • Paved and curbed • Runoff controlled

  23. Vegetated filter strip to treat BOTH: barnyard runoff and milkhouse wastewater

  24. VFS has Two Discharge Points Milkhouse wastewater P concentrations Avg - 16 mg/L, Range from 10 to 21 mg/L

  25. Screens and Collector Drop Box

  26. Grass VFS Performance as Percent P Removal

  27. Barnyard Runoff • Estimated Nitrogen Fate • Immobilized Soil OM 20% • Denitrified 20% • Volatilization 20% • Crop Uptake 30% • Leaching 10% • Total 100%

  28. Barnyard Runoff • Estimated Nitrogen Fate • Immobilized Soil OM 100 Lbs. • Denitrified 100 Lbs. • Volatilization 100 Lbs. • Crop Uptake 150 Lbs. • Leaching 50 Lbs. • Total 500 Lbs. N/Acre

  29. Barnyard Runoff • Assumptions: • 20 gallons manure /cow per day • 32 Lbs. N/1000 gallons of manure • 230 Lbs. N / cow per year • Time in barnyard proportional to manure left • Daily cleaning leaves 10% available to flow • Settling removes 25% of N

  30. Barnyard Runoff • 230 Lbs. N / cow per year • 10% Time in barnyard • 23 Lbs. N/cow/yr. • Daily cleaning leaves 10% available to flow • 2.3 Lbs. N/cow/yr. • Settling removes 25% of N • 1.7 Lbs. N/cow/yr.

  31. Pollution Prevention • Eliminate • Reduce • Recycle

  32. Barnyard • Purpose? • Holding • Feeding or water • Resting • Exercise • Heat detection • Eliminate!!

  33. Bunk Silos • Storage of: • Silage juice • Runoff • Drainage water • 25 year 24 hour storm • Silage leachate is very high in BOD, N and P

  34. Solutions • Catch and store it all • Then spread according to a NMP • Roof the Storage • Collect only the concentrated low flow • Treat dilute high flows in a grass filter

  35. Effluent Varies • Silage juice • Dry matter • Runoff from rainfall • Outside water • Amount of empty bunk area • Evaporation • Other commodities

  36. Conclusions: • Concentrated Sources Need to be Controlled • Prevention is Key • Look for Low Cost Alternatives to Treatment