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  1. CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning Steve Darn

  2. What is CLIL? • An approach? • A methodology? • Nothing new? • A philosophy? • A process? • Good? Steve Darn

  3. Teaching Content Through English Teaching English Through Content Foreign Language Medium Instruction (FLMI) Teaching Through Foreign Languages (TTFL) Teaching Content in a Foreign Language (TCFL) Dual-focused Language Instruction Content-support ELT Adjunct / Linked Language courses Integration of Languages and Disciplines (BILD) Four-handed foreign language instruction Learning with Languages Learning through an additional language Foreign Language Immersion Program (FLIP) Plurilingual Instruction Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum (FLAC) Extended Second Language Learning Language-enhanced Content Instruction Integrated Curriculum Bridge Program Cross-Curricular Teaching Interdisciplinary Teaching Learning skills based ELT / ESP Content-based Instruction (CBI) Content-based Language Instruction (CLII) Content-based Language Teaching (CBLT) Integration of Content and Language Content and Language Integrated Classrooms English-enriched Content Teaching Content-enriched English Teaching English-focused Content Teaching Content-focused English Teaching Content-centered English Teaching English-centered Content Teaching Content-driven English Teaching English-driven Content Teaching English-sensitive Content Teaching Content-sensitive English Teaching Content-oriented Language Learning Content-infused Language Teaching Theme-based Language Teaching Topic-based Language Teaching Discipline-based ESL Instruction Sheltered Subject Matter Teaching By any other name….. Steve Darn

  4. A definition • CLIL refers to any dual-focused educational context in which an additional language is used as a medium in the teaching and learning of non-language content. It is an umbrella term covering aspects of: • Language Across the Curriculum • Bilingual Education • Content-based instruction/learning Steve Darn

  5. Another definition CLIL is the meeting point of content and language in space (the classroom) and time (the lesson). Steve Darn

  6. Why CLIL? • Economic(al) reason • Political reason • Pedagogical reason • Intercultural reason Steve Darn

  7. Messages • Every teacher is by definition a language teacher. • Every school should have a language policy. • Language is the principal means of making sense of knowledge. Steve Darn

  8. Languages in Europe The EU has 23 official languages The cost of translation in all EU institutions is estimated at €800 millionp.a. Steve Darn

  9. The future student Steve Darn

  10. Education in Europe Steve Darn

  11. CLIL and ELT • Communicative approach • Process rather than product • Message rather than medium • Integration rather than isolation • Learner potential rather than teacher input • Language across the curriculum Steve Darn

  12. How does CLIL work? • Knowledge of the language becomes the means of learning content • Language is integrated into the broad curriculum. • CLIL is based on language acquisition rather than learning. • Learning is improved through increased motivation. • Language is seen in real-life situations in which students can acquire the language. This is natural language development. • CLIL is long-term learning. Students become academically proficient in English after 5-7 years in a good bilingual program. • Fluency is more important than accuracy. Learners develop fluency by using English to communicate for a variety of purposes. • Reading is the essential skill. Steve Darn

  13. Learning by…. CLIL is material driven Steve Darn

  14. Research Foundations • It takes 5-7 years for students in a quality bilingual program to become academically proficient in English. • Language acquisition is cyclical, not a linear process. • Learners acquire best when they create, discover and construct their own meanings. • Language is a means, not an end, and when learners are interested in a topic, they will be motivated to acquire language to communicate. • Fluency precedes accuracy and errors are a natural part of language learning. • Learners develop fluency in English by using English to communicate for a variety of purposes. • Reading is essential for developing academic English skills. Steve Darn

  15. The benefits of CLIL • Introduce the wider cultural context • Prepare for internationalisation • Enhance the school profile (bilingual education) • Improve overall and specific language competence • Prepare for future studies and / or working life • Develop multilingual interests and attitudes • Diversify methods of teaching and learning • Increase learner motivation Steve Darn

  16. CLIL in the classroom • CLIL curriculum • CLIL teachers • CLIL lessons Steve Darn

  17. The CLIL curriculum • All or some subjects are taught through a foreign or second language • The curriculum is based on the 4 Cs - CONTENT, COMMUNICATION, COGNITION and CULTURE • More content is taught as language competence increases • There is no language syllabus • CLIL starts in elementary school Steve Darn

  18. CLIL lessons • Contain the 4 Cs • Are not language lessons or subject lessons delivered in a foreign language • The subject matter determines the language needed to learn. Language is not graded. • Are often based on reading or listening texts • Are similar to ‘integrated skills’ lessons, incorprtae aspects of the lexical approach and are humanistic and communicative. Steve Darn

  19. A CLIL lesson framework There is no such thing as a ‘CLIL lesson’, but lessons often follow a pattern: • Processing the text • Organisation of knowledge • Language identification • Tasks for learners Steve Darn

  20. An interactive text Jeans are trousers traditionally made from denim, but may also be made from a variety of fabrics including cotton and corduroy. Originally work clothes, they became popular among teenagers starting in the 1950s. Historic brands include Levi's and Wrangler. Today Jeans are a very popular form of casual dress around the world and come in many styles and colors. The earliest known pre-cursor for jeans is the Indian export of a thick cotton cloth, in the 16th century, known as dungaree. Dyed in indigo, it was sold near the Dongarii Fort near Mumbai. Jeans were first created in Genoa. The first denim came from Nîmes,France. Steve Darn

  21. Organisation of knowledgean ‘ideational framework’ Steve Darn

  22. made from/made of a variety of popular among form of earliest known pre-cursor for known as dyed in first created in/by/as denim cotton corduroy historic brand casual dress style dungarees indigo ‘Jean’ language • passives for describing a manufacturing process • reduced relative clauses Steve Darn

  23. A student generated text Levi's® is a brand of riveted denimjeans manufactured by Levi Strauss & Co. It is thought that Levi Strauss sold his first jeans to goldminers during the California Gold Rush. Modern jeans began to appear in the 1920s.By the 1990s, the brand was facing competition from other brands and cheaper products from places like China, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. In 2000, the "Launderette" advertisement for Levi's 501s was named the 6th best television commercial ever. The advertisement featured the song I Heard It Through the Grapevine by Marvin Gaye. The new RedWire DLX Jeans will have iPod remote control fitted in its pockets, and comes complete with attached headphones. A pair will cost $200. Steve Darn

  24. A CLIL Lesson - Content Steve Darn

  25. Identifying/naming This is a/the … That is a … That’s the … This is called a/the … It comes from a … It’s from a … The … structure is called the … The … … are called …. At the top of the … there is a (adj) part called the …. Together, the … and the … are called the …. Describing appearance/structure It looks like … It’s got/hasn’t got … It has/doesn’t have … All … have …, a …, and …. The … are the often highly (adj) parts which … (function verb). They are (adj) and are attached to the …. The … are arranged in a ring around the centre of the ... They consist of a ..with a .. shape at the end. … and is shaped rather like a …. … and is divided into two parts. The top of the … is called the …. The .. is attached to the bottom of the .. by a A long tube grows out of the …, this is the .. Describing location It is found in the … of the … The … are found at the base of the …. They are (adj.) and are attached to the …. The … are arranged in a ring around the centre of the …. The … is found in the centre of the …, The .. is attached to the bottom of the .. by a They are inside the …. Describing function The … is the part which … The … is where … is carried out The … is used for …-ing The … has the role of …-ing The carries out the function of …-ing The … has a …-ing role The … is a … The …’s job is to … It does … the …-ing A CLIL Lesson – LanguageAim: to identify, locate and describe the functions of a range of plant and human organs Steve Darn

  26. CLIL teachers CLIL teachers are: • Subject teachers who can also teach language • Language teachers who can teach content • Competent in the target language • Properly trained and involved in INSET CLIL teachers are good at: • identifying the core language of a subject • working with texts and words • designing tasks and projects • using technology Steve Darn

  27. Team teaching Subject Teacher Language Teacher Vocational Trainer Steve Darn

  28. Benefits to teaching • Motivation for teaching increases • Each discipline becomes stronger on its own merit • Teachers expand their repertoire of teaching techniques and strategies • Mutual respect among teachers of various disciplines increases. Steve Darn

  29. Problems • Opposition to language teaching by subject teachers • Most current CLIL programs are experimental • CLIL is based on language acquisition • Lack of CLIL teacher-training • Reduction of comprehension according to language competence • It is unnatural or difficult to teach some subjects using CLIL Steve Darn

  30. Issues Steve Darn • Contexts • Integrating subjects and languages • Training • Materials • Recognition • Testing and assessment • Teacher confidence and collaboration

  31. CLIL Continuum Content Subject teachers with ELT training Language acquisition Take-off Language learning Language teachers with subject knowledge Language Steve Darn

  32. CLIL in Turkey? • What is done already in schools and universities? • Motivation • The ‘prep’ year • Europeanisation Steve Darn

  33. Four Websites • • • • Steve Darn

  34. Thank you for listening Steve Darn