David Eells (Mechanical Engineering) Final Project PlanP08110 – UAV Based Digital Imaging System
Concept Level Project Plan Project Name UAV Based Digital Imaging System Project Number P08110 Project Family Multi-Platform Payloads - Family of Projects Track Aerospace Systems and Technology Track Start Term 2007-2 End Term 2007-3 Faculty Guide Dr. Marcos Esterman (ISE) – Confirmed Faculty Consultant Dr. Jeff Kozak (ME) – Confirmed Faculty Consultant Dr. Carl Salvaggio (CIS) – Confirmed Primary Customer Dr.Carl Salvaggio (CIS)
Aero Design Team Heavy Lift Aircraft The Aero Design Team is working on an aircraft that we can use to carry the system aloft. We have dimensions and a weight limit for the aircraft The cargo area is 5”x6”x15” The weight limit is 15 pounds. Per a recent meeting with the Aero Team, there is a total of 12” between the mounting point and the ground. The system as built is ~10” in height. This will allow us to adapt the system as built to be mounted on the aircraft with a 2” clearance. A custom cargo pod will need to be built to protect the system and make it more aerodynamic.
The Imaging System • Current system dimensions are 10cmx10cmx30cm (excluding dome) • Dome is ~6” radius (will assume 6” for purposes of clearances).
Phase 0: PlanningMission Statement Product Description This product will be a digital imaging system to be taken aloft in the RIT SAE Aero Design Team Heavy Lift Aircraft UAV. This product will continue and expand the BRDF Imaging System project. Key Business Goals The primary business goals of this product are to -Generate the Bi-directional Reflection Distribution Functions of natural targets outside on a clear day -Prove the significance of BRDF. Primary Market RIT Mechanical Engineering Department Future SD Teams in this project family Secondary Market Other aerial imaging groups Stakeholders Stakeholders in the design of our product include the following: -The RIT Aero Design Team -Future SD teams -RIT
Phase 0: PlanningStaffing Requirements Mechanical Engineers 2-3 -ME 1: David Eells, will be responsible for administrative work and share responsibility for physical design work. -ME 2: TBD, will share responsibility for physical design work and will be responsible for fabrication. Electrical Engineers 1-2 -EE 1: TBD. Will share responsibility for programming PC104 board. (If no EE 2, will also share responsibility for other control system development.) -(EE 2: TBD. Will either be responsible for or share responsibility for control system development. Preferably a student with an interest in image processing) Industrial and Systems Engineers 1 ISE 1: TBD. Will be responsible for systems integration. Computer Engineers 1-2 CE 1: TBD. Will share responsibilty for programming PC104 board. (If no CE 2, will also share responsibilty for other control system development) (CE 2: TBD. Will share responsibility for non-PC104 control system develpment) Imaging Science Majors 0-1 -An IS major may be needed for theoretical work. Alternately, an EE with image processing interest could fill this role.
Phase 0: PlanningResource Requirements People -The Aero Design Team has designed, built and flown a first-generation model of the UAV we may be using to carry the imaging system. Their information will be needed for the overall design. Also, the Aero Team may be needed when the project is ready for flight testing. -ME, EE, CE Faculty. The ability to consult with experienced faculty will be invaluable. -Other needs Environment -The project team will need a secure storage space for project parts and systems. -The project team will need the ability, late in the project, to flight-test the project. -This may involve a manned aircraft. -Other environment needs Equipment -The project team will need access to simple tools, the machine shop, CAD programs, circuit design tools and other resources. -The project team will need a platform to flight test the project. -Other equipment needs Materials Materials required for this project will likely include metal stock and plexiglass sheeting. The one possible long lead-time ordering need is a new inclinometer. -As the system is already built, and would only need adaptation to the new platform, raw material needs should be minimal.
Phase 1: Concept DevelopmentIdentify Customer Needs - Interviews Primary Customer(s) Other Stakeholder(s) After meeting with the Aero Design Team, I have the cargo area dimensions and weight limits. The system as built can be retrofit so as to attach to the new plane as designed. Also, the Aero Team may be needed for flight testing of the project. Past Senior Design Team(s) I was unable to find any prior SD teams involving the Heavy Lift Aircraft in the EDGE Database. However, a recent SD team (P07521) had a project to create an imaging platform for the Micro Air Vehicle. Dr. Esterman was the Faculty Guide for that project. I recently spoke with Dr. Salvaggio of CIS, and got a look at this system, which we will be adapting for use in this project.
Phase 1: Concept DevelopmentIdentify Customer Needs - Benchmarking Competitive or Cooperative Solutions The College of Imaging Science has an imaging system built by the P07521 project team. We will be adapting this system to the needs of this project. Dr. Salvaggio was the primary customer for the project that developed the system, his help will be invaluable. Internet Search/Technical Literature Search As this is a continuation of a previous project, a review of their research will be necessary. Other research may be necessary to carry out the extended goals of this project.
Phase 1: Concept DevelopmentIdentify Customer Needs - Interpret Needs Statements: Imaging System must meed gross physical requirements of payload bay A custom cargo pod enclosure will be needed to attach the sytem to the plane. The maximum lift weight for the Heavy Lift Aircraft is approximately 15 pounds. The system must be approximately balanced about the centerline. Imaging System must be vibration-damped to allow clear pictures System must be able to be “locked-in” to the payload bay. System available from CIS is already vibration-damped. Meet customer needs of previous project (PO7521) Instantaneously look at an object from all possible vantage points before the sun moves Be able to tell the health of a field from the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index Come up with the shapes of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) of natural targets outside on a clear day Create a portable device to take outside and measure BRDF Show that BRDF exists in multiple band passes Digital count drift of no more than 2% Batteries to hold power for a reasonable amount of time Batteries that are easy to charge 15x15 pixel area on target at all times 50-70 degree angle from horizontal on target Log GPS coordinates with each picture taken Time stamp on pictures Keep system nearly level while imaging Robust enough to prevent equipment damage Store images as .TIFF files
Phase 1: Concept DevelopmentIdentify Customer Needs - Interpret Needs Statements: 4. On-ground processing of data must be available. Graphical Interpretation Organize the Needs into a Hierarchy Establish the Relative Importance of the Needs Reflect on the Results and the Process
Notes on the imaging system The CIS imaging system is well within the physical limits of this project In fact, the system will need some retrofitting to allow it to fit better on the heavy-lift aircraft. The CIS system is already vibration-damped The system is self-powered. Battery power source good for about 8 hours. The system stores images on a standard Compact Flash card
System notes II The current system has a dome-mounted camera. Full 180° hemisphere range of motion. Keeps camera pointing at point of interest. Two problems... The team that developed the system corrupted the PC104 chip that runs it during a ground test. The chip had some “legacy” code on it that was not backed-up, so the chip will need to be reprogrammed. The inclinometer currently in the system may be needed by another CIS student's project. If that is the case, a new inclinometer would be needed.
Senior Design Planning Week 1 Introduce the project Explain responsibilities of team members Introduce faculty guide and consultants Show team the UAV and the Imaging System. Determine good day/time for meetings other than Fridays. Give out assignments for next week. MEs: Research materials for enclosure CEs, EEs: Start developing programming plan. Week 2 Finalize needs assesments Review assignments. Start redesign of enclosure/design of enclosure extensions. Give out assignments MEs: Finish concept design(s) for enclosure/extensions. Continue researching materials for enclosure/extensions. CEs, EEs: Refine programming plan.
Senior Design Planning Week 3 Status reports/review assignments Start analysis of materials for enclosure/extensions Start cargo pod concept designs Assignments MEs: Refine concept designs for enclosure/extensions CEs, EEs: Continue refining programming plan. Start research on programming PC104 board. Contact any on-campus resources for PC104 programming.
Team Values and Norms Team members are to be Punctual Each team member will be prompt and arrive at the team meetings on time. If an unexpected conflict comes up, the absent team member will notify at least one team-mate prior to the expected absence. An absent team-member should confirm that a team-mate has received their message (in person, voice mail, email, etc). Thorough Each team member will complete their tasks thoroughly and completely, so that the work does not have to be re-done by a peer on the team. If a member does not know how to complete a task, feels overwhelmed, or needs assistance then the member notifies peers, and seeks assistance either from a peer, the faculty guide, a faculty consultant, or another person. Accurate Each team member completes their work accurately and in a way that can be easily checked for accuracy by peers and the faculty guide. All work is fully documented and easy to follow. Professional and Ethical Each team member gives credit where credit is due. All work completed includes citations to appropriate literature, or sources of assistance. If a team member has gotten assistance from a publication or individual, then that assistance or guidance is fully documented in the reports prepared. Each team member is honest and trustworthy in their dealings with their peers. Demonstrates the core RIT values of SPIRIT. Committed Each team member will contribute an equal share to the success of the project.
Grading Assesment D Restore Imaging System to operation. C Adapt Imaging System to Heavy Lift Aircraft Complete programming of PC104 board. Conduct ground testing. B All “C” Grade criteria Enable additional on-ground processing A All “B” Grade criteria Flight Test (either manned or unmanned).
Budget Concerns Without a more complete assessment, all budget issues cannot be known, but certain estimates can be made. The inclinometer in the sytem may be needed by another student's project. In the interests of continuity, I would like to replace it with an identical inclinometer The current inclinometer is a Micro-Strain Inc 3DM-GX1 model, with a listed price of $1495.00. Flight testing may require a manned aircraft. Most likely avenue for a manned flight is a sight-seeing service. Rochester air center is only such service I could find in this area. Price for flight there is approximately $150/hr depending on aircraft. I would estimate that flight testing would take at most 3 hours, for an approximate cost of $500. Other material costs are yet to be determined
Flight Testing When I contacted the Rochester Air Center, they reccomended I contact Dr. Roy Czernikowski (CE), who is one of their flight instructors. He indicated that he would be willing to donate some time to the project if the aircraft costs were paid for. Dr. Czernikowski's involvement could reduce the flight test cost by eliminating the pilot's pay of $35/hr. This would reduce the cost of the flight testing to $80-$105/hr, depending on aircraft. I will be meeting with Dr. Czernikowski this afternoon to explain the project.
Future Planning Update and complete online PRP. Find students who are interested in the project.