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Overview of the Internet/Broadband

Overview of the Internet/Broadband RTV 3000 Introduction to Telecommunication Evolution of the Internet Question posed in 1963 by RAND, a cold war think tank. “How could the U.S. communicate after a nuclear attack?” Internet Evolution Answer The communication network would require:

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Overview of the Internet/Broadband

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  1. Overview of the Internet/Broadband RTV 3000 Introduction to Telecommunication

  2. Evolution of the Internet Question posed in 1963 by RAND, a cold war think tank. “How could the U.S. communicate after a nuclear attack?”

  3. Internet Evolution Answer The communication network would require: • The intelligence to reside in the endpoints • Any endpoint could talk to any other endpoint • Network Routing be self-healing after attack • No centralized control • Messages divided into packets that could take any number of paths from source to destination

  4. Internet Evolution • Internet began as ARPANET in the late 1960s, run by Dept. of Defense • Development of TCP/IP Protocols in mid 1970s, incorporated into ARPANET in 1983 • NSF supports TCP/IP in CSNET in early 1980s • ARPANET and CSNET merge in 1980s

  5. Internet Evolution • NSF subsidizes NSFNET backbone and regional networks in 1986 • NSF Phases out federal support for Internet backbone in 1992-95 • Internet commercialized in mid 1990s

  6. The World Wide Web • Created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1991 at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) • Portion of the Internet that utilizes a software program (browser) to display WebPages • Browser development: Mosaic in 1993; Netscape Navigator popularized in mid 90s

  7. Internet in Context • Internet is convergence • Unique Multi-modal capabilities and user-driven qualities compared to previous telecommunication technologies • Many predict shared protocol of the Internet is platform of the future

  8. Brief overview of the Internet • Digital data and bits (1’s & O’s) are packet switched on interconnected networks through use of routers and communication links • Packet-switching involves TCP/IP

  9. Brief overview of the Internet • Best efforts routing; packets of related-information (e.g. email) may travel different paths • Packets reassembled at final destination • e2e allows for creative applications and software • Openness key to daisy chaining, e2e & more

  10. Who governs the Internet? • No centralized controlling authority • Standards and protocols set by a number of self-governing organizations, including: • Internet Society (ISOC) • Internet Architecture Board (IAB) • Internet Engineering Task Forces (IETF) • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) • Existing governing and political institutions may influence policy • Misnomer to believe Internet is completely unregulated

  11. Internet is convergence • Common product/service platform that support multiple functions • Driven by digitization, bandwidth and throughput • Form of information carried traditionally by different delivery mechanisms: voice (telephone), data (private corporate network), and video (broadcast network or cable tv) • Multi-modal content

  12. Why Broadband Throughput Matters: Transfer Rate of a 10-Megabyte File (10-20 minute video clip) • Telephone modems, 28.8 Kbps – 46 minutes, 56.6 Kbps – 24 minutes • ISDN modem, 128 Kbps – 10 minutes • Typical Cable & ADSL, 1.54 Mbps – 52 seconds • 4-Mbps – 20 seconds • 10-Mbps – 8 seconds

  13. From Narrowband to Broadband • Definition of Broadband Internet • Internet access with a minimum capacity of greater or equal to 256 kbit/s in one or both directions (ITU) • 200 kbit/s in or both directions (FCC) • Fixed Broadband: DSL, Cable Modem, FTTH • Mobile Broadband: W-CDMA, CDMA 2000 • Portable Internet: WLAN, WMAN, WiMAX

  14. From Narrowband to Broadband • In the U.S. Cable Modem is dominant technology for fixed broadband services (44.1 %). • High-speed lines by technology as of June 30th, 2006

  15. Internet Usage in the U.S. • Estimated Internet users: 185 M (2005) • Internet Users per 100 inhabitants: 63.00 (2005) • Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants: 22.5 (2005) • PC Penetration Rate: 76.22 (2005) • U.S. Ranked 12th in terms of Internet users per 100 inhabitants • TOP 5 Countries in Internet usage: 1. Iceland 2. New Zealand 3. Sweden 4. Australia 5. Korea

  16. Broadband Deployment • Benefits of Broadband Deployment • Approximately 50 million households in the U.S. (45 percent) subscribe to a broadband connection (high speed Internet access) • Currently more than 4 Million Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoIP) residential telephone subscribers in U.S. • 50 Million Internet Telephony (Skype) Users • Total High-speed lines in the U.S. (1999-2006)

  17. Fixed Broadband Deployment • US Ranks only 15th among 30 OECD countries in terms of fixed broadband penetration rate.

  18. Mobile Broadband Deployment • US Ranks only 24th among ITU membership countries in terms of mobile broadband penetration rate. • Mobile Broadband Penetration Rate: 1.46 per 100 inhabitants (ITU, 2005). • 2.2% of total mobile subscribers were mobile broadband users. • TOP 5 Mobile Broadband Economies: 1. Korea 2. Italy 3. Japan 4. Portugal 5. Hong Kong, China

  19. Broadband Deployment • Broadband Infrastructure is a key component of knowledge economy • Q: What factors might influence broadband deployment in the national level? • Policy Factors • Information and Communication Technology Factors • Industry Factors • Economic/Consumer Factors • Socio-Cultural Factors • Digital Divide of great concern, nationally and especially among developing nations • Q: Why the U.S. is lagging significantly behind in broadband deployment?

  20. Convergence and Broadband • Media Convergence • DAB (digital audio broadcasting) • DVB (digital video broadcasting) • DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting) • IPTV (internet protocol television)

  21. Convergence and Broadband: DMB • Satellite DMB (S-DMB) and Terrestrial DMB (T-DMB)

  22. Fixed-Line Telephone Broadband Internet Mobile Telephone Fixed-Line Television Cox Communications and Comcast (VoIP, Cable Modem, and Cable Television Verizon and AT&T Cingular Voice Telephone, DSL, IPTV, and Mobile Phone Convergence and Broadband:Multi-play • Triple- and Quadruple-Play of Telecommunications and Media Firms

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