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Main road Corridors The first approach
Cartogram of population by NUTS 2 and main road corridors and weak links
Hierarchy of the road network according to the size of cities linked
Cost to motorways by car Acces time
Cost to high-speed rail in stations by car (part 3 chapter 2.2) travel time, reflects the regions that have a high-speed rail station well connected by road with at least 75 trains/day. Apart from the connectivity it gives an idea of the high-speed rail stations endowment, in terms of high-speed rail stations and not length (like the high-speed rail lines density indicator calculated in this report).
City network’ daily accessibility by air (part 3 chapter 3.3) is based on timetables and on the possibility to do typical business trips in a single day with a minimum of 6 hours spent at the destination city; with trips belonging to the time interval 6h to 23h. The functioning of a city network supposes the activation of a limited set of links in which each city is at least connected to its closest neighbours. Supporting a ‘city network’ in Europe could mean to reinforce some Accessibility to transport infrastructures
From road networks to cities networks The "potential Polycentrism of proximity”, as is showed by the map below for a criterion of distance of 100 km.
Transport externalities for transit Nox emissions for trucks
Global policy recommendations Each modification induces imbalances. Imbalance is inseparable of the dynamic. The increase of the capacities of road corridors is currently impossible for most of highways Moreover, the capacities available on the railways are insufficient to permit a modal shift In our domain, dynamic can be seen as a confrontation between two different temporalities. The temporality of the transport supply that is expressed in the easiest way by creations of road and rail infrastructures (13 to 15 years) The temporality of the transport demand that is those of firms for goods and that is roughly of 3 or 5 years, for the creation of a production unit and for a relocation We propose to promote policies at short, medium, and long term
Key policy recommendations at the European level Global short term transport policy recommendations, already in application in numerous agglomerations: • regulation of traffics to increase the capacities, diminish the pollutants, the casualties… • pricing policies, • development of intermodality to facilitate a modal shift and • the degradation of speeds on roads Towards a sustainable transport: a reduction of the fuel consummation, so of the emission, of casualties, etc…
Key policy recommendations at the European level Macro regions : • Atlantic Arc area, • Mediterranean Sea area, • Nordic area, • Central area, • Eastern Europe. Synthesis at the European level
POLICY RECOMMANDATIONS From the ESPON 121 perspective