The Internet and Its Applications Chapter 9
The Internet • Three aspects of the Internet evolution • Capacity growth • Application and traffic growth • Internet policy change
Internet Capacity ARPANET (1969): The Internet was started by the U.S. Department of Defense as a network of four computers. - 1974, 62 hosts - 1983, 1000 hosts - 1989, decommissioned NSFNET (1986): Built up by National Science Foundation with a 3-tier structure - 1987, 10,000 hosts in the Internet, 1000 in BITNET - 1988, upgraded to T1 (1.544 Mbps). - 1991, upgraded to T3 (45Mbps) - 1995, decommissioned vBNS (1995): 622Mbps in 1995 vBNS+ (now): 2.5 Gbps (or more)
NSFNET By 1991, the NSFNET's backbone network service has been upgraded to T3 (45 Mbps) links
Internet Policy Originally, commercial traffic was forbidden on the Internet, because the major portions of these networks were funded by the various national governments and research organizations. In the early 1990s, commercial networks began connecting into these networks, opening it to commercial traffic.
Today’s Internet • Network access point (NAP) • The NAP is defined as a high-speed network or switch to which a number of routers can be connected for the purpose of traffic exchange. NAPs must operate at speeds of at least 100 Mbps and must be able to be upgraded as required by demand and usage. • The concept of the NAP is built on the FIX (Federal Internet eXchange) and the CIX (Commercial Internet eXchange), which are built around FDDI rings with attached Internet networks operating at speeds of up to 45 Mbps.
Abilene vBNS CA*Net 3 Figure 9-11 Gigapops and high speed backbones of Internet 2/Abilene, vBNS, and CA*Net 3
Abilene • Abilene is an advanced backbone network that supports the development and deployment of the new applications being developed within the Internet2 community. Abilene connects regional network aggregation points, called gigaPoPs, to support the work of Internet2 universities as they develop advanced Internet applications. Abilene complements other high-performance research networks.
Some vBNS Facts (2001) • Speed: 2.5 Gbps (OC-48) • Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) • 0.001% Packet loss and 100% availability • both unicast and multicast • IPv6 enabled • Extends to Europe and Asia
Internet Hosts Growth (Recent statistics) July 1999:56,218,000 Internet hosts January 2000: 68,862,283 Internet hosts July 2000: 86,509,613 Internet hosts January 2001: 113,873,000 Internet hosts (MIDS)
Local ISP Local ISP National ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP NAP National ISP National ISP National ISP Regional ISP NAP National ISP National ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP Local ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP MAE Local ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP Local ISP Regional ISP Local ISP Local ISP Local ISP Local ISP Local ISP Local ISP Local ISP Figure 9-1 Basic Internet Architecture Local ISP MAE: Metropolitan area exchanger
ISP POP Individual Dial-up Customers ISP Point-of Presence Modem Pool ISP POP Corporate T1 Customer T1 CSU/DSU Layer-2 Switch ATM Switch ISP POP Corporate T3 Customer T3 CSU/DSU Remote Access Server Corporate OC-3 Customer ATM Switch NAP/MAE Figure 9-2 Inside an ISP Point of Presence
ISP A ISP D Router Router ATM Switch ISP B ISP E Router ATM Switch ISP C Route Server ISP F Router ATM Switch Figure 9-3 Inside the Internet’s Chicago Network Access Point
Customer Premises Individual Premise Main Distribution Frame Voice Telephone Network DSL Modem Line Splitter Hub Individual Premise Telephone Wireless Transceiver DSL Access Multiplexer Individual Premise Computer Computer Wireless Access Office Customer Premises Wireless Transceiver Router Customer Premises ISP POP Figure 9-9 Fixed wireless architecture
WAP Client WAP Gateway Web Site WAE User Agent Web Server WAE Requests Wireless Transceiver Wireless Telephony Application Server WAE Requests WAE Responses (plus WML, etc.) WAE Responses (plus WML, etc.) WAE Responses (plus WML, etc.) WAE Requests HTTP Requests WAP Proxy HTTP Responses (plus HTML, jpeg, etc.) Figure 9-10 Mobile wireless architecture for WAP applications
Sprint Abilene UUNet CA*Net 3 Verio DREN WSU Router Boeing Router Router Microsoft U Idaho Switch Switch Router Router Montana State U HSCC High-speed Router High-speed Router Router AT&T U Montana Router Switch Switch SCCD Router Sprint U Alaska U Wash OC-48 OC-12 T-3 Portland POP Figure 9-12 Inside the Pacific/Northwest Gigapop