Standard: SS6H6d Explain the impact of European empire building in Africa and Asia on the out break of World War I
Essential Question:How did the existence of large European colonial empires in Africa and Asia impact the outbreak of World War I?(SS6H6d)
SS6H6dd. Explain the impact of European empire building in Africa and Asia on the outbreak of World War I. • Africa in 1914 • Nearly all areas of Africa were controlled by European powers in 1914.
SS6H6dd. Explain the impact of European empire building in Africa and Asia on the outbreak of World War I. Asia in 1914 Large portions of Asia were also controlled by European powers directly or by influencing local leaders
List the causes that led up to World War I.
Causes of World War I(Take notes on graphic organizer) • Militarism – building up armed forces, getting ready for war (The more one nation built up its army and navy, the more other nations felt they had to do the same.) Alliances – agreements or promises to defend and help another country (The danger of these alliances was that an argument between two countries could draw all the other nations into a fight.) Imperialism – trying to build up an empire (powerful country that controls several less powerful countries) • Nationalism – having pride in your country, willing to defend it Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
There was fierce competition over land in Europe • Naval expansion was also extremely competitive, particularly between Germany and Great Britain.
Armies and navies were greatly expanded. The standing armies of France and Germany doubled in size between 1870 and 1914.
Alliance An agreement among people or nations to unite for a common cause. Each member of an alliance agrees to help the other members in case one is attacked.
European countries had joined alliances to better protect themselves. If one member was attacked, the others were obligated to help that country.
Distributed Summarizing With a seat partner, discuss a time in your life when an alliance (with a friend, family member, or someone else) has caused problems. (Be prepared to share)
Distributed Summarizing Journal Entry: Allies are countries that have pledged to help one another in times of need. Name some of the people you would like to have as allies the next time you are in a difficult situation. Explain your choices. (Must be five sentences)
Nationalism • Pride in one’s country; nations sought their own interests over others • In the 19th century, nationalism took the form of people struggling for independence • Serbia was at the center of the nationalist movement in an area of Europe known as the Balkans • What happened in the Balkans was a spark that started the war. • Serbia considered Austria-Hungary as an enemy because Serbs in Austria-Hungary wanted to unite with Serbia and create a larger Serbian state
The events that followed… Because of the assasination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June of 1914 by a member of a nationalistic secret Serbian society, the emperor of Austria-Hungary declared war of Serbia.
The events that followed… Russia sent troops to defend Serbia because Russia had a separate treaty with Serbia. Russia supported Serbia because they were both of a similar ethnic backgrounds.
The events that followed… Since Germany had a treaty with Austria- Hungary (the Triple Alliance), Germany declared war on Russia.
The events that followed… France had a treaty with Russia (the Triple Entente) so Germany declared war against France.
Things changed during the war The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente turned into these two WWI alliances. The Triple Alliance plus more formed the Center Powers The Triple Entente plus more formed the Allied Powers
Some of the Technological Advances from WWI • Tank • Aircraft • Machine Gun • Gas used as a weapon • Flamethrower
Distributed Summarizing Could World War I have been prevented? Why or why not? Would we have had the technological advances without WWI?
Standard: SS6H7a Describe major developments following World War I: the Russian Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, worldwide depression, and the rise of Nazism
Russia: A Background • Nicholas II – autocratic and ineffective • He ruled a country covering one-sixth of the earth’s total land surface • He had massive personal wealth • He was backed by an army of 1 million and secret police • Political parties banned – critics ended up in prison or exile • Press was censored
Russia: A Background • Many Russians worshipped the Tsar and peasants typically had a picture of the Tsar on a wall of their hut. • His word was law • He appointed his ministers • But did not have to listen to them • AND could ‘hire and fire’ them at will • He was a true autocrat.
Russia was… • Only 40% ethnic Russians • 80% were peasants – subsistence farmers • 60%+ = illiterate • Life expectancy = 40 • Low tech and low investment • Land ownership rare • Land owned by the Commune • It also organized taxes and allotted strips of land to each household
Distributed Summarizing During the time described, Russia was like ____________ because _________________________. Share your answer with a partner.
Russian Revolution • Russian revolution started in 1917 and had two parts. • The first part was the February Revolution in which the czar (Tsar, national ruler) was overthrown. • People were unhappy about how the czar and his government were running the country. People were starving while the aristocracy was living in luxury. • People were also upset about their participation in the war.
Russian Revolution • The Russian army was big but poorly equipped; the army lost battles which lowered civilian and military morale • The czar was seen as a poor military and political leader while his German wife (tsarina) was left in charge of the government and was influenced by a man many thought was crazy (Rasputin) • There were not enough workers in the factories and farms which caused shortages of food and materials • The railway system was weak; therefore, troops nor towns could get supplies
Russian Revolution • The second part of the Russian Revolution was the October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution) • The October Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin • After two years of civil war, the communist forces gained control • Russia became the communist country of the Soviet Union • Communism continued in Russia until nearly the end of the century
Watch the United Streaming video clip: Russian Revolution(Time - 9:31; the first few minutes link to previous video clips)http://player.discoveryeducation.com/?blnPreviewOnly=1&guidAssetId=ac3fe43d-f94f-494b-916e-c53c22ac7185
The Russian Revolution 1904-1917 – A series of Crises 1905 – Russo-Japanese War WWI – 1914-1917 Japan wins some key islands once owned by Russia An unmitigated disaster for Russia. Weak generals, poorly equipped troops (some sent with no gun!) 4 million Russian soldiers die in the first year. The war drained the government money reserves and food shortages begin. Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905) Peasants approach the Czar’s winter palace in St. Petersburg with a petition asking for better work conditions and food. Troops opened fire on the crowd of women and children and as many as 1000 die. Rasputin The Duma Nicholas II goes to the front, his wife turns to a holy man/psychic for help in running the government. Russians are furious about this. a legislative body made by the Czar in response to national unrest – he dissolved it weeks later. Others met, yet did nothing. Czar Nicholas II is overthrown. He and his family are executed.
Distributed Summarizing With a partner, discuss why the Russian Revolution occurred and what happened to Russia because of the revolution. Write your answers on the Major Developments in Europe After WWI sheet.
The War is Over! Leaders come together to decide the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
The Treaty of Versailles(add requirements of the treaty to Major Developments sheet) • The Treaty of Versailles officially ended WWI • It forced Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war • It required Germany to pay reparations (payments) to other countries for their losses and damage • It required Germany to give up 1 million square miles of land (size of Alaska and Texas combined) much of which was rich in natural resources (Why does this matter?) • It required Germany to limit its armed forces • The U.S. did not sign the Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles In 1919, this treaty put an official end to World War I. Since Germany was the loser, they had to agree to its provisions: Restricted German armed forces Created the League of Nations Loss of Territory The purpose of the organization was to arbitrate conflicts between nations before they lead to war. Loss of German colonies around the world, and loss of German territory to France, Denmark, and Poland. Reparations It required that Germany accept responsibility for the war and was thus obliged to pay large amounts of compensation to other countries. Officially put at $33,000,000,000, a sum that many economists deemed to be excessive. The economic problems that the payments brought are cited as one of the causes of the rise of dictator Adolf Hitler, and inevitably led to the outbreak World War II.
Listen to the National Public Radio story about Germany making its last reparation payment in September 2010. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=130232809
What do you think the world was like after World War I? • Explain the outcome of Germany and their economy after WWI.
Worldwide Depression Stock Market crash of 1929 – the financial affects were felt around the world. Street scene on Black Thursday, Oct. 24, 1929, the day the New York stock market crashed and the day that many mark as the beginning of the Great Depression.
After WWI and worldwide depression • WWI affected the European economy because nations had war debt to repay • Soldiers came home needing jobs, but there were not enough. Unemployment skyrocketed. • In 1929, the stock market crash led to depression in the U.S. but also all over the world • Countries experienced Inflation (a condition where prices rise and money loses value; therefore, you cannot buy as much as you used to with the same amount of money)
After WWI and worldwide depression • Industry, shipping, and trade between countries were affected • Around the world, unrest and nationalism grew, people wanted strong leadership to make their countries rich and powerful again • However, the Great Depression weakened many countries when they needed to be strong. Why is this significant?