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Chemistry: Unit 4

Chemistry: Unit 4

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Chemistry: Unit 4

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  1. Chemistry: Unit 4 Inorganic Nomenclature Mr. Gower/Blake/Heaton

  2. Fig. 2.11 H+ Be2+

  3. I. Background: A. Periodic Table 1. Column: _______ or _______ (Similar properties) 2. Row: _______. 3. _______: Left of staircase (Majority of the elements). 4. ___________: right of staircase. Exception: _____(non-metal) 5. ____________: touching the staircase. Exception: ___ (metal). group family period Metals Non-metals H Metalloids Al

  4. Period Group H O F Br I N Cl Transition Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Alkali Metals Noble Gases Halogens Lanthanides Actinides

  5. Ions (Charged atoms) • 1. ________: positively charged (lost e-). • 2. ________: negatively charged(gained e-). • C. Trends in the periodic table • 1. Using the planetary model – (simplified model of atom) • 2. Energy levels can contain a maximum of: • 1st energy level: ____ • 2nd energy level: ____ • 3rd energy level: ____ (____) • 3. _________ are the keys to chemical bonds. Cations Anions 2 8 8 18 Electrons

  6. Ex. Column 1 (____________) Column 18 (___________) Alkali Metals Noble gases H (___ e-) 1 He (___ e-) 2 Ne (___e-) 10 Li (___e-) 3 Na (___e-) 11 Ar (___e-) 18 1 e- in outer shell Similarities: (________________) ______________ Full outer shell

  7. e- • Atoms can gain or lose ___ to achieve a full outer shell (more stable). • Atoms will do what is _______ (least energy) i.e. Oxygen has 6 valence e-: easier to _____ 2 than to ____ 6. easiest gain lose x Lose 1 +1 x Lose 2 +2 x Lose 3 +3 x Lose or gain 4 +/- 4 Non-metals only (above staircase) x Gain 3 -3 x -2 Gain 2 x -1 Gain 1 x 0

  8. See Page 5 • III. Helpful Hints to Memorize Oxyanions • In learning the formulas and charges of common oxyanions, start with the –ate form. From it follows that: • hypo______ite = 2 less oxygens • _______ite = 1 less oxygen • _______ate • per______ate = 1 more oxygen • **ALL forms have the SAME charge!**

  9. Transition Metals 1 2 18 13 15 16 17 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 A Guide to Determine Whether the –ate Formula is –XO3 or –XO4: B C N Cl P Si S Se Br As I

  10. Transition Metals 1 2 18 13 15 16 17 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 A Guide to Determine What the Charge of the Oxy-Anion is: -3 -2 -1 B C N - 4 -3 -2 -1 Cl P Si S -3 -2 -1 Se Br As -1 I

  11. NO3- ClO3- NO2- ClO4- • Examples: • Borate = ________ Carbonate = ________ • Nitrate = ________ Chlorate = ________ • Nitrite = ________ Perchlorate = ________ BO33- CO32-

  12. Thio- SO42- S2O32- OCN- SCN- C. “_____” = Sulfur replacing an oxygen. Ex. Sulfate = ________ Thiosulfate = ________ Ex. Cyanate = ________ Thiocyanate= ________

  13. See Page 2 II. Binary Ionic Compounds A. Background info 1. Metal / ___________ ( _______ is always written first). 2. One element ________ and the other ________. 3. ___________ of e- 4. Charged ions attract one another (opposites attract). 5. The compound is _________ Non-metal Metal loses e- gains e- Transfer neutral

  14. (Metal 1st) (Metal 1st) (Metal 1st) B. Ex. Sodium & chlorine NaCl (1 Na to every Cl) Na Cl Na+ Cl Ex. Calcium & bromine CaBr2 (2 Br for every 1 Calcium) Br Ca Ca2+ Br Br Ex. Li2O (2 Li for every 1 Oxygen) Lithium & oxygen Li Li+ O2 O Li Ex. Aluminum & sulfur Al2S3 (2 Al for every 3 S) Al S Al3+ S2 S Al S

  15. C. Shortcut to determining formula (Criss-Cross method): • 1. ________ from charge becomes the subscript. • 2. All ionic compounds are _________ (no + or -). • 3. Subscripts are written in ________ possible ratio. • The number “1” is never written (It is implied). • Examples Number neutral lowest Ex. Al3+ O2- Ex. Li+ O2- Al2O3 Li2O (Aluminum oxide) (Lithium oxide) Ex. Ca2+ O2- Ex. Mg2+ N3- Mg3N2 Ca2O2 CaO (Calcium oxide) (Magnesium nitride)

  16. D. Nomenclature of binary ionic compounds (bi = 2). • 1. _____ is named first (name of atom). • 2. ____________ is named second, ending changed to ____. • If the metal (cation) can have multiple charges, the charge is written as a roman numeral (IUPAC). • (Fe, Cu, Co, Hg, Mn, Sn, Pb) Metal Non-metal -ide 4. Formula to name: a. Li2O _________________ b. Al2O3 _________________ c. CaO _________________ d. Mg3N2 _________________ Lithium oxide Aluminum oxide Calcium oxide Magnesium nitride

  17. Iron ___ oxide (III) Ferric oxide e. Fe2O3 __________________ (___________________) f. SnO2 __________________ (___________________) g. CuCl ___________________ (___________________) h. MnN ____________________ (___________________) 2(x) + 3(-2) = 0 x = +3 Tin ___ oxide (IV) Stannic oxide 1(x) + 2(-2) = 0 x = +4 Copper __ chloride (I) Cuprous chloride 1(x) + 1(-1) = 0 x = +1 Manganese ___ nitride (III) Manganic nitride 1(x) + 1(-3) = 0 x = +3

  18. Name to formula: • a. Beryllium fluoride ____________ ___________ • b. Potassium bromide ____________ ___________ • c. Tin (II) oxide ____________ ___________ • d. Cobaltic sulfide ____________ ___________ • e. Strontium iodide ____________ ___________ BeF2 Be2+ F – K+ Br – KBr SnO Sn2+ O2- Co2S3 Co3+ S2- SrI2 Sr2+ I –

  19. 6. Polyatomic Ion: A group of atoms with a _______ charge. Ex. (1) CN- = (2) NH4+ = (3) OH- = a. Polyatomic ions will _______ stay together as a group. b. If there is more than one polyatomic ion, it must be placed in ____________. single cyanide ammonium hydroxide always parentheses

  20. Examples: Iron (II) hydroxide Fe2+ OH- Fe(OH)2 Ferrous hydroxide Ca2+ CN- Ca(CN)2 Calcium cyanide NH4+ O2- (NH4)2O Ammonium oxide NaCN (No Parentheses b/c only 1) Sodium cyanide Na+ CN- Cobalt (III) hydroxide Co(OH)3 Co3+ OH- Cobaltic hydroxide

  21. (III) ferric IV. Ternary Compounds: (compounds containing ___ or more elements). 1. Name the _______ 2. Find the appropriate name of the _______. 3. Formula to name: 3 cation anion a. Li2SO4 _______________ b. Fe(NO3)3 _________________________ Lithium sulfate Iron ___ (_____) nitrate 1(x) + 3(-1) = 0 x = +3

  22. (I) cuprous (II) manganous c. CdC2O4 __________________ d. Cu3AsO3 ___________________________ e. Mn2SiO4 ________________________________ f. (NH4)2SO4 __________________ Cadmium oxalate Copper __ (_______) arsenite 3(x) + 1(-3) = 0 x = +1 Manganese __ (___________) silicate 2(x) + 1(-4) = 0 x = +2 Ammonium sulfate

  23. Name to formula: • a. Potassium thiocyanate: __________ _________ • b. Aluminum permanganate: __________ _________ • c. Plumbic acetate: ____________ ___________ • d. Cobalt (III) oxalate: ____________ ___________ • e. Sodium hypochlorite: __________ __________ K+ SCN- KSCN Al3+ MnO4- Al(MnO4)3 Pb+4 C2H3O2- Pb(C2H3O2)4 Co3+ C2O42- Co2(C2O4)3 Na+ ClO- NaClO

  24. V. Nomenclature of Hydrates A. Hydrate: Ionic compound with ______ molecules stuck in the _______ lattice. The water is included in the ______ and formula. 1. ZnSO4 7 H20: __________________________ 2. CaCO3 3 H2O: __________________________ 3. Cu2C2O4 2H2O: _________________________________ 4. Calcium chloride pentahydrate: _____________ 5. Cupric acetate monohydrate: _______________________ water crystal name Zinc sulfate heptahydrate Calcium carbonate trihydrate Copper (I) (cuprous) oxalate dihydrate CaCl2 5H20 Cu(C2H3O2)2 H20

  25. CO VI. Binary Molecular Compounds A. Molecular (________) compounds 1. Non-metal to __________. ______of staircase including hydrogen 2. ________ of electrons. Ex. 3. Non-metals can often combine in several different ways. Ex. covalent non-metal Right Sharing (Both Cl need “1” electron) Cl Cl CO2

  26. Nomenclature of binary molecular compounds: • Greek prefixes are used: • mono = hexa = • di = hepta = • tri = octa = • tetra = nona = • penta = deca = 1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 5 10 mono 2. The prefix “_______” is omitted for the 1st element. Ex. CO = _________________ Carbon monoxide

  27. For oxides the ending “______” is omitted. • a. N2O = ____________________ • b. N2O3 = ____________________ • c. N2O4 = ____________________ • d. NO = ____________________ • e. NO2 = ____________________ • f. NO5 = ____________________ o or a Dinitrogen monoxide Dinitrogen trioxide Dinitrogen tetroxide Nitrogen monoxide Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen pentoxide

  28. Metal Non-metal • Compound • IonicCovalent • (Charges Cancel Out) (No Charges) • 1. • 2. 2. • 3. 3. Metal / Non-metal Non-metal only No Prefixes!!! Prefixes = Diiodine tetroxide Li20 = Lithium oxide I2O4 Ex. 1. _______________________ 2. _____________________ P2O5 Diphosphorus pentoxide NCl4 Nitrogen tetrachloride

  29. Nomenclature (Acids) • A. Acids: Compounds that contain __________ as the positive ion (H+). • B. Exceptions: _____ (water) & ______ (hydrogen peroxide). • C. Binary Acids: Acids that ___ ____ contain oxygen. • 1. Use prefix “______” • 2. Add stem or full name of ______. • 3. Add suffix “___”. • Add the word ______. • Ex. HBr = _________________________ • HCl = _________________________ • HCN = ________________________ hydrogen H20 H2O2 do not hydro anion ic acid Hydrobromic Acid Hydrochloric Acid Hydrocyanic Acid

  30. Ternary Acids: Contain ____ or more elements, __________ oxygen. • Acids formed with anions that contain ______ become ____ acids. • HNO3 (NO3- = _______) __________ • HClO4(ClO4- = ___________) _____________ • H2SO4(SO42- = ________) ___________ • H3PO4(PO43- = ___________) _______________ 3 including -ate -ic Nitrate Nitric acid Perchlorate Perchloric acid Sulfate Sulfuric acid Phosphate Phosphoric acid

  31. Acids formed with anions that contain ____ become ______ acids. • HNO2 (NO2- = ________) ____________ • HClO2 (ClO2- =_________) _____________ • H2SO3 (SO32- =________) ______________ -ite -ous Nitrite Nitrous acid Chlorite Chlorous acid Sulfite Sulfurous acid • Name to formula: • a. cyanic acid __________________ ________ • b. dichromic acid ______________________ _______ • c. hypochlorous acid _____________________ _______ • d. hydrosulfuric acid _______________ ______ H+ OCN- (Cyanate) HOCN Cr2O72- (Dichromate) H2Cr2O7 H+ ClO- (Hypochlorite) HClO H+ H2S H+ S2- (Sulfide)

  32. Compounds IonicCovalent (Metal / Non-metal) BinaryTernary Acids Starts w/ H+ BinaryTernary Hydrates w/ oxygen • w/ H2O • Uses prefixes • ie. Calcium choride/ • Calcium carbonate • trihydrate • CaCl2 3H2O • CaCO3 3H2O • • • Non-metal / Non-metal • Uses prefixes, -ide • I2O7 Diiodine heptoxide • 2 elements • -ide • Roman numeral • (if needed) • ie. Calcium chloride • CaCl2 • 3 or more elements • Anion is named • Roman numerals • (if needed) • ie. Calcium carbonate • CaCO3 • No oxygen • Hydro__ic acid • ie, Hydrochloric acid • HCl • -ate—ic • acid • H2CO3 • Carbonic • acid • -ite---ous • acid • H2SO3 • Sulfurous • acid

  33. Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. Carboxylic acids are weak acids that form ions in solution:

  34. Ethanoic acid - ethanoate ion acetate ion:

  35. - - Oxalate ion:

  36. Phthalic acid (IUPAC systematic name: benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid) is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4(COOH)2. - - C C C C HC HC CH CH Phthalate ion

  37. Inorganic Nomenclature: Binary Ionic Compounds (p.1)  1. Calcium hydroxide 13. Lead (II) / Plumbous chloride 2. AlCl3 14. Fe(OH)3 3. Iron (II) / Ferrous iodide 15. Silver oxide 4. Hg2Cl2 16. HgO 5. Sodium hydride 17. Ammonium iodide 6. MgCl2 18. CuCl 7. Zinc bromide 19. Cesium nitride 8. MnCl2 20. CuS 9. Ammonium chloride 21. Silver cyanide 10. PbS 22. CdS 11. Potassium cyanide 23. Zinc sulfide 12. MgO 24. LiBr

  38. Inorganic Nomenclature: Ternary Ionic Compounds (p. 2) 1. Sr3(PO3)2 11. NaOCN 2. Ammonium chromate 12. RbIO 3. Co(ClO)2 13. Mn2(HPO4)3 4. Mercury (II) / Mercuric iodite 14. Tin (IV) / Stannic perchlorate 5. Ca3(BO3)2 15. Pb(C2O4)2 6. Iron (III) / Ferric sulfite 16. KMnO4 7. Al2(C8H4O4)3 17. (NH4)2Cr2O7 8. Strontium nitrite 18. Zinc bicarbonate 9. Cu(C2H3O2)2 19. Magnesium thiocyanate 10. Beryllium arsenite 20. Cesium thiosulfate

  39. Inorganic Nomenclature: Hydrates (p. 3) 1. CaCl2 · 5H2O 2. Ba(NO3)2 · 3H2O 3. Al2(SO4)3 · 9H2O 4. Zinc sulfate heptahydrate 5. Iron (II) / Ferrous borate tetrahydrate 6. Copper (I) / Cuprous oxalate dihydrate 7. Li2S · H2O 8. Sodium chromate trihydrate 9. Cu(ClO2)2 · 6H2O 10. Barium iodate dihydrate 11. CaBr2 · 10H2O 12. Iron (III) / Ferric thiosulfate pentahydrate 13. Fe(C2H3O2)2 · 7H2O 14. Strontium nitrite tetrahydrate 15. Sn(SO3)2 · 2H2O 16. Potassium thiocyanate octahydrate

  40. Inorganic Nomenclature: Binary Covalent Compounds (p. 4) 1. Carbon monoxide 15. dinitrogen tetroxide 2. PBr3 16. PF5 3. Carbon tetrachloride 17. Sulfur dioxide 4. Nitrogen trichloride 18. Dinitrogen trioxide 5. SeO2 19. Hexaboron monosilicide 6. Diphosphorus trioxide 20. Xenon hexafluoride 7. SO3 21. Sulfur dichloride 8. Diphosphorus pentoxide 22. SeF6 9. Carbon dioxide 23. Chlorine dioxide 10. Phosphorus pentaiodide 24. Dinitrogen tetroxide 11. SeO3 25. CS2 12. Sulfur hexafluoride 26. Dichlorine monoxide 13. Dichlorine heptoxide 27. Dihydrogen pentasulfide 14. ClF3 28. CF4

  41. Inorganic Nomenclature: Binary Compounds (p. 5) 1. Diiodine pentoxide 17. XeF4 2. SF6 18. Cl2O7 3. HgBr2 19. CuF2 4. Iron (III) / Ferric chloride 20. Tin (II) / Stannous chloride 5. CoF3 21. CO 6. SO2 22. Ammonium cyanide 7. Boron trifluoride 23. Mn2O3 8. Al(CN)3 24. Strontium cyanide 9. Cadmium sulfide 25. P2O3 10. N2O4 26. Ag3N 11. Cobalt (III) / Cobaltic chloride 27. PbCl4 12. Copper (I) / Cuprous bromide 28. Dihydrogen monoxide 13. Zinc hydroxide 29. Ba(OH)2 14. NH4Cl 30. NO 15. PbS 16. SnF2

  42. Inorganic Nomenclature: Acids (p. 6) 1. Hydrobromic acid 20. Periodic acid 2. Hypochlorous acid 21. Hypobromous acid 3. Permanganic acid 22. Hydrochloric acid 4. HIO 23. H2CO3 5. Hydrobromic acid 24. H2SO3 6. Phosphoric acid 25. Arsenous acid 7. Bromic acid 26. Hypoiodous acid 8. Hypobromous acid 27. H3PO3 9. Nitric acid 28. HBrO4 10. Perchloric acid 29. HF 11. Phosphorous acid 30. Sulfuric acid 12. Iodic acid 31. cyanic acid 13. Chromic acid 32. Hydrocyanic acid 14. Arsenic acid 33. H3PO4 15. Carbonic acid 34. H2C2O4 16. Acetic acid 35. H2C8H4O4 17. Hydroiodic acid 36. H3BO3 18. Nitrous acid 37. Hydrocyanic acid 19. Dichromic acid 38. Hydrofluoric acid

  43. Inorganic Nomenclature: Problem Set A (p. 7) Part I 1. Calcium hydroxide 18. Tin (IV) / Stannic bromide 2. Silver phosphate dihydrate 19. Tin (II) /Stannous fluoride heptahydrate 3. Silver thiocyanate 20. Lead (II) / Plumbous permanganate 4. Sodium acetate 21. Sodium silicate 5. Ammonium sulfate 22. Dinitrogen pentoxide 6. Zinc sulfide octahydrate 23. Aluminum perchlorate trihydate 7. Cadmium cyanide 24. Mercury (II) / Mercuric acetate 8. Barium iodate 25. Cesium sulfite 9. Copper (II)/Cupric sulfite dihydrate 26. Strontium iodite pentahydrate 10. Copper (I) / cuprous iodide 27. Hydrofluoric acid 11. Iron (III) / Ferric nitrate nonahydrate 28. Beryllium nitride 12. Iron (II) / Ferrous oxalate 29. Calcium bicarbonate/hydrogen carbonate 13. Mercury (I) / Mercurous chloride 30. Manganese (III)/Manganic nitrate tetrahydrate • Manganese (II) / Manganous 31. Phosphorus trichloride carbonate 15. Manganese (III) / Manganic hydroxide 32. Iron (III) / Ferric cyanate 16. Barium hypochlorite 33. Aluminum thiosulfate 17. Lead (II) / Plumbous sulfate 34. Hydrobromic acid

  44. Inorganic Nomenclature: Problem Set A (p. 7) Part II 35. Al(BrO3)3 · H2O 48. Cu3(BO3)2 36. (Hg2)3(PO4)2 49. SnS 37. Mn2O3 50. Al(C2H3O2)3 38. Sr(HCO3)2 · 10H2O 51. CaCrO4 39. FeI2 52. NaClO2 40. Fe(IO3)3 · 9H2O 53. SnCr2O7 41. Mn(OH)2 54. Hg(CN)2 42. Li2C8H4O4 55. (NH4)2SO3 43. Co2(SO4)3 · 7H2O 56. SnCl4 44. Co(MnO4)2 57. PbCO3 45. CuIO4 58. Zn3P2 46. Cl2O7 59. Cu2SiO4 · 3H2O 47. Ag2C2O4 · 2H2O 60. HNO2

  45. Inorganic Nomenclature: Problem Set B (p. 8) Part I 61. Silver phosphate 75. Calcium hydride 62. Cobalt (III)/Cobaltic chloride 76. Dinitrogen pentoxide 63. Beryllium nitrite dihydrate 77. Iron (III) / Ferric sulfide 64. Iron (III) / Ferric permanganate 78. Magnesium oxalate heptahydrate 65. Ammonium nitrite 79. Nitric acid 66. Aluminum sulfide 80. Rubidium silicate 67. Zinc periodate 81. Sulfur hexafluoride 68. Lead (II) / Plumbous borate 82. Calcium phosphide 69. Sulfurous acid 83. Manganese (IV) oxide 70. Carbonic acid 84. Copper (II) cupric acetate 71. Diiodine heptoxide 85. Mercury (II)/Mercuric bromide dihydrate 72. Barium silicide 86. Barium chromate • Potassium bicarbonate/hydrogen carbonate • Barium hypobromite pentahydrate 87. Cadmium thiocyanate   88. Calcium monohydrogen phosphate tetrahydrate

  46. Inorganic Nomenclature: Problem Set B (p. 8) Part II 89. K2C2O4 · 8H2O 105. Fe(BrO3)3 90. CuCl2 · 2H2O 106. Pb(ClO4)4 91. Mn2(Cr2O7)3 107. Mn2O3 92. MgHPO4 108. BF3 93. Hg2SO4 · H2O 109. Sr2SiO4 94. N2I3 110. H3PO4 95. ClO5 111. HOCN 96. AlF3 · 2H2O 112. K2O 97. LiBr 113. Al2S3 98. H2SO4 114. H2CrO4 99. CaClO3 · H2O 115. Be(OH)2 100. Zn(IO)2 116. H2C2O4 101. HI 117. (NH4)2CrO4 102. CdO2 118. HBrO4 103. AgIO 119. Sn(BrO2)4 104. SrSO3 · 10H2O 120. LiCl

  47. Inorganic Nomenclature: Sample Test #1 (p. 9) Part I 1. Aluminum bromide 2. Hypochlorous acid 3. Phosphorus pentachloride 4. Manganese (II) / Manganous sulfate monohydrate 5. Ammonium iodite 6. Lithium silicate 7. Hydrogen peroxide 8. Sulfur hexafluoride 9. Copper (I) / Cuprous oxalate nonahydrate 10. Boric acid 11. Sodium carbonate trihydrate 12. Silver sulfide 13. Iron (III) / Ferric hydroxide

  48. Inorganic Nomenclature: Sample Test #1 (p. 9) Part I 14. dichlorine heptoxide 15. Strontium cyanide hexahydrate 16. Phosphorous acid 17. Mercury (II) / Mercuric oxide 18. Cadmium bromate 19. Rubidium phosphate 20. Zinc phthalate 21. Acetic acid 22. Tin (IV) / Stannic oxide 23. Thiocyanic acid 24. Potassium acetate 25. Cobalt (III) / Cobaltic arsenite

  49. Inorganic Nomenclature: Sample Test #1 (p. 10) Part II 26. SnCl2 · 8 H2O 39. Ag3N 3H2O 27. AlBO3 40. Rb2SO4 28. Cd2SiO4 41. H2Cr2O7 29. N2O5 42. PbO2 30. H2C2O4 43. Zn(MnO4)2 31. (NH4)3PO3 44. CsOH 32. NaH2PO4 45. AlH3 33. HOCN 46. Mn(SCN)3 34. KIO4 47. BeC8H4O4  4H2O 35. Fe(BrO)3  2H2O 48. Al(IO3)3 36. HF 49. HBrO4 37. I2H9 50. Ba(HCO3)2 38. Hg2(NO2)2

  50. Inorganic Nomenclature: Sample Test #2 1. Be(CN)2 • Li3BO3  H2O • HSCN 4. H2O 5. ZnC2O4 6. Fe3(PO3)2 7. CaF2  7H2O 8. Al(MnO4)3• 8H2O 9. I7O9 10. HIO 11. Sn(HCO3)2 12. (NH4)2SO3 13. AlN