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(Tracy Bucco)

(Tracy Bucco)

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(Tracy Bucco)

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  1. Lecture 3 EUS-201European Geography James LeighUniversity of Nicosia (Tracy Bucco)

  2. Cyprus – Geostrategic for EU Power Projection Cyprus – Geostrategic for EU Power Projection Cyprus, http://earth.esa.int/satelliteimages/172/Cyprus_MER_FR_2P_Orbit_06817_20030620_or.jpg

  3. Lecture Readings • Leigh, J. and Vukovic, P. A Geopolitics of Cyprus, forthcoming (watch for handout) • Mazis, I. Th. The Mediterranean Geopolitical Structure and the Matter of Resolving the Cyprus Issue in Accordance with the Anan Plan1, Laboratory of Geocultural Analysis, Ionian University, Greece. (see course handouts/notes) also online http://www.geopolitics.gr/PDF/art-imaz-cyprus01en.pdf

  4. Purpose To consider the geopolitics of Cyprus, and how this is coveted by the EU, for the projection of power into the Middle East. Eurofighter 2000 Typhoon Fighter: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2247950/posts

  5. Ancient name and Progenitor Japheth In ancient literature known as: • Kittim (Kiti still a village near Larnaca) • Chittim Progenitor of early Greeks (and Aegean isles): Dodanim Progenitor of Early Cypriots: Kittim Both Dodanim and Kittim are sons of Javan, of Japheth Javan Kittim (Cyprus) Ruins: http://www.insureandgo.com/press/Cyprus_convenient_for_property_purchase_12569.html

  6. Macro-history • Cyprus has successively been overrun and conquered by foreign powers for their own purposes. • A small country, strategically located in the Middle East at the bridge of Eurasia and Africa. Europe Asia Middle East Africa Cyprus, http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/WI/223/1598/PreviewComp/SuperStock_1598R-89552.jpg

  7. Europe and Cyprus • Military campaigns or crusades have been launched by Europe from Cyprus into the Middle East. In 168 BC Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria was about to attack into Egypt. A Roman fleet from Cyprus cut him off. Defeated and dejected, he returned to Judea.   • Moving forward to the Crusades, history records that crusades were launched from Cyprus into the Middle East. In AD 1171, Saladin, mounted a jihad to recover Jerusalem from the European Christian infidels. In AD 1187, he crushed the European military and Jerusalem fell to the Muslims. This shocked Christendom. The European powers mounted the 3rd crusade – used Cyprus as a supply bridge to support their military campaigns into Israel against Islam. • Imminent: Cyprus as the European high-tech military outpost, with military bases and hi-tech installations in proximity to the Middle East, will be indispensable, as it so often has been in history. Cyprus is geostrategic as EU expands into the Middle East • To sustain entrenched interests in Jerusalem and Israel as previously in the Crusades. • To maintain oil imports from the Persian Gulf through three straits: Strait of Hormuz, Bab el Mandab, The Suez   • Events may develop simultaneously to a clash of European Christendom and Middle East Islam. Cyprus is strategic. 

  8. Geography Influences Nations • There are physical and human geographic phenomena • Some of the main physical phenomena: • Topography (landforms: mountains, deserts, rivers, seas etc) • Size (shape and dimensions) • Location (international relationships: borders, proximity) • Climate (climate effects on human activity and development) • Natural resources (trade and industrial development) Hala Sultan Tekke Mosque: http://www.planetware.com/picture/larnaca-hala-sultan-tekke-cy-cy113.htm

  9. Macro-geography Terrain • Central Mesaoria Plain with Kyrenia Range (alluvial limestone) to N: and Troodos Mountains (volcanic, granite) to S • Highest point: 1,951 m (6,407’), Olympus (Troodos) Nicosia Cyprus: http://geology.com/world/satellite-image-of-cyprus.jpg

  10. Topography etc Map: http://www.geographicguide.net/europe/maps-europe/cyprus.htm Radar surveys skies to India Green Line (UN) Airport Radar Port Airport Airport Port

  11. Range of Cyprus’ Radar Up to ~ 3,600 miles (6,000 kms) to Northern India Persian Gulf Map, http://kantan-net.main.jp/worldmap/world_map_gif.gif

  12. http://www.estatescyprus.com/the-work-on-world-class-airports-reveals-increased-visitors-numbers/52/http://www.estatescyprus.com/the-work-on-world-class-airports-reveals-increased-visitors-numbers/52/ http://www.aeolos.com/main/data/LimassolPort.jpg Larnaca airport Limassol Seaport http://www.bamjam.net/Cyprus/troodos.html Wikimedia Troodos radar golf ball Archbishop’s Palace

  13. Location: Where is Cyprus? Europe N. America Asia Africa S. America Oceania Traditional trade route junction of Europe, Africa and Asia

  14. Size and Location Greece Turkey Tehran Size and shape • Island smaller than Connecticut • Less than a million people • Long like a sausage Location • Europe or Asia (Middle East)? • Far eastern Mediterranean • In Islamic region – (Cyprus and Israel) • European Christian outpost • Island, buffered by water • Microcosm of Christain:Islamic division • Eurofighter maximum combat radius 1400 kms / 850 miles • Much of Middle East out of jetfighter range from Europe, but not from Cyprus • Midair refueling and aircraft carriers extend the range, needed as much of Iran out of range of Eurofighter • Regional military bases also extend the reach of Eurofighter • Good sea ports for navy Cyprus Iraq Iran Egypt Libya Saudi Arabia Eurofighter: Maximum combat range

  15. Location – Sea Gates • EU is greatly imports dependant • Without massive levels of imports Europe will die in days or weeks. • Europe import huge amounts of food, fossil fuels, minerals etc • Minerals and fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) are vital for economic development • Europe depends on Islamic Persian Gulf countries for huge 40% of its oil • Vulnerable to chokepoints (sea gates): Suez, Bab el Mandab, Strait of Hormuz – these are more easily controlled onsite from Cyprus facilities Cyprus Suez Canal Strait of Hormuz Bab el Mandab

  16. Watchtower, 1990 Europe Asia N America Africa S America Cyprus Oceania “Christian outpost in an Islamic Sea”Geopolitically strategic Late 1900s - World Religions

  17. Fractured Island – Divided City EU Island state:*Military occupation by EU candidate – Turkey*British (EU) sovereign bases (Part of UK (EU)) Map: http://www.4holidays.gr/cyprus_map.html Islamic Green line Christian • How will this affect EU:Turkey association?How will Christian:Isamic divide play out?

  18. Cyprus Climate • Mediterranean climate – hot dry summers, cool moist winters • Natural sunny resource for tourism • Some flying machines don’t work well in extreme heat (e.g. choppers) • Even when very hot, outdoor human activity possible all year round • Fairly good for warfare – except extreme heat ~ 45 C, ~113 F. Map: http://www.grabovrat.com/mapsViews/mapsViews80.html

  19. Resources: Industries and Products • Few natural resources • Potentially offshore oil? • Tourism (largest) (sunny climate) • Tertiary Education: 6 small universities • Financial services/consulting • Solar energy ~ every house • Handicrafts: lace, baskets, pottery, etc • Printing and publishing • No oil refinery – closed • Cement • Cigarettes • Agriculture/food • Olive oil • Wine, beer • Barley, wheat, grapes,Citrus, Potatoes,almonds, walnuts • Livestock • Chickens • Pigs • dairy/meat(sheep, goats, cattle) All industries are too small to be important for the EU

  20. Population structure • Christian:Islamic divide - 78% Greek Orthodox, 18% Suni Moslem (Turkish) • Prospective ageing and declining population (MDC and EU syndrome) • 0-14 yrs 19% (falling) • 15-64 69% • >64 12% (increasing) • Low population growth problem: 0.5% • Life expectancy 78 yrs, M 76, F 80 Declining and ageing population with low birth rate, low death grate

  21. Macro-historical Context Let us now place Cyprus within its past so we can better understand the future. “The further back we see the further into the future our vision will be.” (James Leigh)

  22. (Leigh, 2009)

  23. Europe – Roman Empire AD 200 Map: http://www.worldhistory.timemaps.com/roman-empire/AD200.htm

  24. Map: http://www.worldmapsonline.com/islamicconquests.htm

  25. Successive Expansion of Ottoman Empire1300 - 1683 Map: http://www.answers.com/topic/empire-1

  26. Enlarged Europe: 15 + 10 (2004) + 2 (2007) Map: http://www.321energy.com/editorials/mearns/mearns121307.html

  27. Concluding Observations on Cyprus • Cyprus is on the edge – a frictioncleavage point in the Middle Eastbetween European Christendom andMiddle East Islam • Is now a microcosm of theChristian:Islamic divide – EUand Turkey – Cyprus is divided • Is often taken west and east,sometimes in Christendomsometimes in Islam • Now functions as an outpost for EUChristendom prospectively against Islam • Has nothing to offer EU exceptthe vital geostrategic location,proximity to Israel and MiddleEast and Persian Gulf Islamism • Has the (military) installations (ports, radar, airports)to facilitate EU military campaigns into the Middle East and Persian Gulf regions Europe: http://ec.europa.eu/youreurope/business/profiting-from-eu-market/selling-goods/index_en.htm

  28. (Tracy Bucco)