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Federal Aviation Administration

Federal Aviation Administration

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Federal Aviation Administration

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  1. Federal Aviation Administration BASIC AERODYNAMICS PART I PRESENTED BY: Dennis H. Whitley FAASTeam Lead Representative NORTH FLORIDA REGION

  2. MY MOTTO SHOW ME A PILOT THAT CAN’T ANSWER A CORRELATIVE QUESTION AND/OR CAN’T PERFORM A GIVEN TASK, & I’LL SHOW YOU A PILOT THAT DOESN’T UNDERSTAND WHAT HE/SHE IS TRYING TO ACCOMPLISH.

  3. FLIGHT INSTRUCTING MUST NOT BE THE BY-PRODUCT OF BUILDING FLIGHT HOURS.

  4. BUILDING FLIGHT HOURS MUST BE THE BY-PRODUCT OF FLIGHT INSTRUCTING.

  5. SAFETY COMMITMENT VS DEDICATION

  6. THIS DISCUSSION IS BASED ON SUBSONIC AIRCRAFT AND WILL BE “VERY BASIC” “NO FORMULAS” “VERY LITTLE MATH”

  7. WE WILL TALK ABOUT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 4 FORCES LIFT/WEIGHT/THRUST/DRAG GROUND EFFECT TURNING TENDENCIES TRIM DEVICES AERODYNAMICS OF SPINS SLIPS/SKIDS ADVERSE YAW

  8. WHAT IS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE?

  9. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS THE WEIGHT OF ALL THE AIR UPON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH.

  10. WHAT DOES 30 hg MEANS? HOW WAS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE MEASURED?

  11. 36 YARD STICK 36 INCHES TALL

  12. 36 YARD STICK

  13. 36 YARD STICK

  14. HOW WAS THE DROP OF PRESSURE WITH ALTITUDE VERIFIED?

  15. HOW WAS THE WEIGHT OF THE AIR DETERMINED?

  16. WHAT IS AN ALTIMETER? A PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL GAUGE

  17. 20 20 20 25 25 25 15 15 15 30 30 30 10 10 10 35 35 35 5 5 5 40 40 40 0 0 0 HG HG HG FROM SOURCE FROM SOURCE

  18. Kollsman Window Static Port

  19. SEA LEVEL static port pressure 31.00 hg. sea level pressure 31.00 hg. 31.00

  20. static port pressure 23.00 hg. sea level pressure 31.00 hg. 31.00

  21. WHAT IS ALTIMETER SETTING? SEA LEVEL PRESSURE CORRECTED FOR NONSTANDARD TEMPERATURE.

  22. WHAT IS THE MAIN REASON THAT AN AIRPLANE IS ABLE TO FLY? BECAUSE OF THE WEIGHT OF THE AIR. In other words the aerodynamic effect air has on the aircraft.

  23. DEFINITION OF AERODYNAMICS The branch of science that deals with the forces produced by air flowing over specially shaped surfaces called airfoils.

  24. IS THERE ANY THING WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE? TWO THINGS THE FLOWING OF THE RELATIVE WIND THE DIRECTION OF THE RELATIVE WIND

  25. CAN WE FLY WITH A FLAT WING?

  26. 1ST LAW: Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. 3RD LAW: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. AT CRUISE COSTANT ALTITUDE

  27. MINIMUM MANEUVERING SPEED SLOW FLIGHT

  28. STALL PA-28 SERIES

  29. WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF FOIL? TO PREVENT FROM BEING SUCCESSFUL TO THWART

  30. AIRFOIL • Any surface designed to deflect the airflow passing over it or striking it, and thereby obtaining an useful reaction AN AIRFOIL IS AN AIR DEFLECTOR

  31. HOW MANY AIRFOILS ARE THERE?

  32. AIRPLANE WING. • AILERONS. • SLATS • LANDING FLAPS. • VERTICAL STABILIZER. • RUDDER. • HORIZONTAL STABILIZER. • ELEVATOR/STABILATOR • TRIM TABS. • PROPELLER. • ROTOR BLADE. FUSELAGE. FEARING. STRUTS.

  33. WHAT IS LIFT?

  34. A FORCE CREATED BY A DEFLECTION OF AIR AND PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL AROUND AN AIRFOIL. IS CALLED LIFT WHEN IT ACTS UPWARD. WHEN IT ACTS DOWNWARD IS CALLED NEGATIVE LIFT. WHEN IT ACTS SIDEWAYS IS CALLED SIDE LIFT. WHEN IT ACTS FORWARD IS CALLED THRUST

  35. HOW IS LIFT CREATED? AIR PASSING BY AN AIRFOIL DEFLECTION -- ISSAC NEWTON AIR’S CHANGE OF DIRECTION--BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE PRESSURE DIFERENTIAL-- BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE

  36. WHAT’S WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE

  37. CAN WE FLY WITHOUT THE HELP OF BERNOULLIS?

  38. THRUST • Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction the accelerated mass will cause a proportional but opposite force on that system.

  39. LIFT • LIFT is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction the accelerated mass will cause a proportional but opposite force on that system. • Thrust is LIFT DIRECTED FORWARD.

  40. THE PROPELLER’S DEFLECTION OF AIR