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GHANA HOUSEHOLD ENERGY PROJECT Status, Achievements and Prospects

GHANA HOUSEHOLD ENERGY PROJECT Status, Achievements and Prospects. By Wisdom Ahiataku-Togobo Ministry of Energy, Ghana wtogobo@gmail.com Abuja-Nigeria 5 th Nov, 2007. Consumption in Kilo Tons of Oil Equivalent Source: PETROTECH.

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GHANA HOUSEHOLD ENERGY PROJECT Status, Achievements and Prospects

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  1. GHANA HOUSEHOLD ENERGY PROJECTStatus, Achievements and Prospects By Wisdom Ahiataku-Togobo Ministry of Energy, Ghana wtogobo@gmail.com Abuja-Nigeria 5th Nov, 2007

  2. Consumption in Kilo Tons of Oil Equivalent Source: PETROTECH Woodfuel account for more than 80% of total energy consumed in the country. Charcoal consumption alone (674ktoe) is more than total electricity generation in Ghana.

  3. The bulk of energy consumed is in the household sector mainly for cooking & water heating. Source: Energy Commission

  4. COOKING FUEL COST 2005 In Accra, the capital city of Ghana where there is access to modern cooking fuels such as LPG, Kerosene and Electricity, less than 30% use modern cooking fuels due to their relatively high cost. The most expensive fuel is the least one used by households Source: GLSS 2000

  5. Despite efforts to ensure access to modern cooking fuel, the effect has been negligible. Over 90% of household in Ghana Still use woodfuel (firewood, charcoal and crop residue)

  6. Meanwhile, the price of modern fuels continue to increase with increasing price of crude oil. • Modern fuel resources are not locally available in most developing countries and therefore had to be imported. • Modern fuels stoves are also imported and therefore more expensive compared to traditional fuel stoves. • Charcoal is becoming the preferred cleaner fuel due to low cost

  7. Unfortunately, resource for charcoal production is threatened by Deforestation & Desertification in all parts of the country.

  8. ` Charcoal Production and use is Unsustainable • No regulation for its transport and marketing

  9. Smoke from burning biomass has serious negative health implication on women and children.

  10. Improved Stove Initiatives in Ghana • There has been efforts by NGOs and Donor partners to introduce and promote improved stoves in the country. • Improved charcoal stoves have had some impact particularly in the urban areas. • Ahibenso – about 32,000 stoves disseminated • Gyapa – Over 150,000 stoves • Improved fuelwood Stoves that requires investment however faced challenges. • Majority of rural people are unwilling to pay for an improved stove. • Woodstove programmes received very little support from government. – Fantastic policies but no budget to support

  11. HOUSEHOLD ENERGY PROJECT • AWP signed between UNDP and Ministry of Energy in June 2006 • Project Duration – 18 months ending Dec 2007 • Project Budget for – US$267,500 • Energy Commission - Main implementing partner • Other partners include • WFP • CSIR-IIR • GEF/SGP • NewEnergy • CASLID

  12. Project Goal Enhance assess to sustainable energy services for cooking in Ghana.

  13. Objectives • Regulate the supply, transport and marketing of charcoal and fuelwoods • Encourage efficient utilization of charcoal & firewood through improved woodstoves • Encourage the use of efficient charcoal production techniques • Encourage shift to alternate cooking fuels such as LPG. • Promote establishment of woodfuel plantations • Educate public on effects of woodfuel smoke on the health.

  14. Programme Strategy • Develop a national woodfuel policy to create the right policy environment for sustainable supply and utilization of woodfuel resource in Ghana. • Support the development of safety standards and promotion of cleaner alternative fuels such as LPG. • Implement pilot projects to test policy recommendations: • Evaluate and promote best practices of improved biomass stoves promoted at households and institutional levels. • Evaluate and promote best practices for efficient methods for charcoal production. • Support the establishment of woodfuel plantations by school children. • Reducing the effect of smoke on human health through: • awareness creation on the negative impact of smoke on human health. • education in kitchen design and stove placement, • Techniques for woodfuel drying and out door cooking. • Promotion of modern fuels such as LPG in institutional and commercial sectors

  15. Results Achieved to Date: • Woodfuel policy developed and incorporated in the Strategic National Energy Plan of Government • Highlights of the policy includes: • Sustainable supply and production of woodfuels • Improving the woodfuel marketing and transportation system • Improving technological efficiency for wood burning stoves and charcoal production. • Institutional and financing framework for policy implementation. • Draft safety standards for LPG use at the household and commercial sector in Ghana developed. • Lack of safety standards and enforcements for LPG transport, distribution and end use accessories have been a major challenge for the LPG Industry in Ghana.

  16. Under the school feeding programme, school pupil carry fuelwood to school instead of books No provision for energy was made in the planning process for cooking in the schools. This has direct impact on fuel required in the household

  17. Pilot field projects implemented to test policy includes: • Collaborating with WFP to establish woodfuel plantations and also test the improved institutional woodstoves in selected basic schools benefiting from the school feeding programme in the Northern and Upper East regions to assess their relative performance under real field condition.

  18. Institutional Wood burning Stoves in Ghana Traditional mud stoves Traditional 3 stone stoves

  19. 80% of stoves abandoned after 2 months of use because it was unsuitable for preparation of most stable food. Due to height. • Traditional stoves built with mud are sometimes more efficient and adoptable to local conditions.

  20. Educate and upgrade basic school kitchens and households to move from enclosed kitchen with poor ventilation to an open ventilated kitchen where possible

  21. Support Second cycle schools with budget for energy to convert to LPG as primary cooking fuel. Stove abandoned after 6 months because cost of LPG far higher than firewood

  22. Household Woodstoves Training women in the construction of mud stoves for rural dwellers T-shirts, and stickers and calendars provided as incentives for the club members.

  23. Proper drying of wood can significantly reduce indoor air pollution Dry wood burns with little or no smoke.

  24. Results Achieved to Date (Continued): Awareness on negative health impact of woodfuel • A 17 minutes documentary on the negative impacts of woodfuel use has been developed for showing on national TV to create the awareness of wood smoke on the health of woodfuel users. • Radio discussions are being held at the regional level to educate the public on the health impact of wood and charcoal smoke. • Sensitization Workshops have been held in beneficiary communities to sensitize women on the danger of using 3-stone woodstoves.

  25. Education on basic fire fightingin the households and institutions

  26. Conclusion • Woodfuel will continue to be the dominant cooking fuel in the foreseeable future. • A switch from traditional fuel to LPG is possible if: • price of LPG is competitive to charcoal • There is improvement in income and living standard of households • There is extensive public awareness on the negative impact of traditional fuel on health and the environment.

  27. The MDG target to reduce indoor air pollution will not be achieved if emphasis is placed on the dependence on modern fuels. • Increase energy access must depend largely on local resources used efficiently in a sustainable manner with modern methods (technologies and techniques) • The traditional stoves besides 3-stone stove should not be ignored. In some cases, they are more efficient than the so called improved stoves.

  28. Way forward • Intensify research and monitoring on best practices of improved woodstoves adoptable to local conditions and based on the traditional improvement efforts. • Undertake extensive public awarenesson the negative impact of smoke on health. • Those that can afford are encouraged to shift to cleaner fuels such as charcoal and LPG • The poor majority that cannot afford are encouraged to use the local energy resources in an efficient and sustainable manner using modern methods (improved technologies and techniques) • The development of plantations to regenerate the forest is essential and a sure way to sustainability.

  29. National government commitment with clear policies, strategies and targets are critical. • Gov. in most developing countries have paid little or no attention to household cooking fuel as in the case of energy for transport and electricity • No public institution/department responsible for biomass energy. • No resource allocation for data or policy on biomass energy • Household energy programmes are driven by donor organizations and NGO. • Programme often abandoned after donor funds are exhausted - No continuity by government because they are not interested. • TV and media to educate public only interested in speech of government officials.

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