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Formation of Governments. Government Systems. Unitary system- All key powers given to a national or central governments Federal system- power is divided between a national government and state government US started with a confederacy or loose association between the states
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Government Systems • Unitary system- All key powers given to a national or central governments • Federal system- power is divided between a national government and state government • US started with a confederacy or loose association between the states • Need something better
Constitution • Plan for the rule of a government • 1. Ideals and values of nation • 2. Basic powers and structure of government • 3. Provides supreme law of the land • Constitutional Government_- government that is limited to the powers given to it by its Constitution. Protection of people’s rights!!!!
Formation of government • Constitutions- not always complete- amendments can be added to U.S • Not always followed- China • Preamble- Goals and purposes set out for the government • Framework- Articles • Highest Law- Constitutional Law • Constitutional law- interpretation & constitutionality of laws- SUPREME COURT
Section 3 Types of Government
Major types of Government • 1.Autocracy- rule by one person • 2. Oligarchy- Rule by a few persons • 3. Democracy- rule by many people • Autocracy- one of the oldest types of govt • Maintained power by inheritance or force • Totalitarian dictatorship- Single leader controlling all aspects of society. • Examples?
Govt Types • Monarchy- king, queen, or emperor • Absolute Monarchy- royalty has all the power. • Examples? • Constitutional Monarchy- England, the Netherlands, Sweden, Japan • Not much power to monarchs • Tradition and figure heads
Oligarchy • Small group holds power • Power usually comes from wealth, military power, social status, sometimes religious position • Communist nations – China, Cuba, Venezuela • Usually claim “rule for the people” • Hugo Chavez – great example • Russia- Vladimir Putin
Democracy • Rule of the people. Consent of the people!!! • People hold sovereign power- responsible for making government live up to its job!!!!!! • Examples of this??? • Direct democracy- people govern themselves by voting on issues individually. • Representative Democracy- Elect officials to represent us and vote for us
Republic • Voters are the source of power. • Representatives are accountable to the people. • Elections and impeachment • No one above the law. • Belief in limited government • AKA- representative democracy, republic, constitutional republic, democratic republic
Characteristics of Democracy • Individual liberties- Bill of Rights • Majority rule with minority rights • Protection against tyranny of majority • Can be tricky balance • Japanese internment of WWII, 911 pressures against Muslims • Immigrants today
Free Elections • Ability to voice opinions and exercise our power as citizens. Right is taken for granted!! • 1.One person, one vote. Idea that all votes carry equal weight in elections. • 2.Candidates opportunity to voice opinions • 3.Citizens free to help candidates- $$ or help • 4. Legal requirements to safeguard voting • 5. Secret ballot with no fear or coercion
Competing Parties • Political Parties- group of individuals with broad common beliefs who organize to nominate candidates. • US- 2 party system (Dems & Republicans) • Others????? • Good or bas that we just have 2 real parties?
Democracy Thriving • 1. Active participation by citizens- voting and holding politicians accountable • 2. Favorable free enterprise economy • 3. Widespread education- intelligent people • 4. Social consensus- general acceptance of values and role of government • Strong civil society- many independent groups that remain separate from government.