Classroom Walkthrough Key Points • What is Classroom Walkthrough? • A focused version of “Management By Wandering Around” • Support for administrators in their roles as instructional leaders, mentors, and coaches • A method for collecting data to detect trends and patterns in teaching and learning • A means of providing individual, small group, and school-wide reflection • NOT a form of evaluation!
Classroom Walkthrough Key Points • What kind of data is collected? • Teaching Objective (Is the lesson’s objective evident?) • Target (Does the lesson match a grade level standard?) • Taxonomy (What level of Bloom’s Taxonomy are the questions?) • Text & Materials (Do the text and materials being used match the grade level? Are they appropriate and engaging?)
Classroom Walkthrough Key Points • What kind of data is collected? • Identification of Instructional Strategies (Is there evidence of Marzano’s nine High Yield Strategies? What other strategies are being used?) • Assessment of Learner Engagement (Are students engaged, compliant, retreating, or rebellious?) • Survey of the Learning Environment (Does the learning environment support the lesson objective?)
Classroom Walkthrough (CWT) and High Yield Strategies (HYS) • Informal data was collected during the 2005-2006 school year when principals were trained in CWT • Data highlighted areas of need: Bloom’s Taxonomy and Instructional Strategies • Marzano’s nine identified High Yield Strategies will help schools improve
School-Based Professional Development plans need to address teachers’ understanding of HYS and ability to use HYS appropriately and with fidelity.
School Teacher Student Factors Influencing Achievement What Works In Schools by Robert Marzano 1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent and Community Involvement 4. Safe and Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality and Professionalism 6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom Management 8. Classroom Curriculum Design 9. Home Environment 10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge 11. Motivation
Instructional Strategies Teacher Factors Influencing Achievement 6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom Management 8. Classroom Curriculum Design
At your table rank these instructional strategies according to their impact on student achievement: • Identifying Similarities and Differences • Summarizing and Note Taking • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition • Homework and Practice • Nonlinguistic Representations • Cooperative Learning • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback • Generating and Testing Hypotheses • Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
High Yield Strategies All nine strategies have a STRONG effect on student achievement! They are all important and greatly influence the level of student achievement in your classroom - when used in the appropriate content and situation! Here are the High Yield Strategy in ranking order…
Works Classroom Instruction That Percentile Gain 45 34 29 28 27 • Identifying Similarities and Differences • Summarizing and Note Taking • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition • Homework and Practice • Nonlinguistic Representations
Works Classroom Instruction That • Cooperative Learning • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback • Generating and Testing Hypotheses • Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Percentile Gain 27 23 25 22
High-Yield Strategies • Identifying Similarities and Differences • Summarizing and Note Taking • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition • Homework and Practice • Nonlinguistic Representations • Cooperative Learning • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback • Generating and Testing Hypotheses • Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Not a Checklist
Comparing Classifying Analogy Metaphor : : ?
Similarities and Differences A and B are similar because they both ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ A and B are different because A is ___________, but B is _____________ A is ___________, but B is _____________ A is ___________, but B is _____________
Identifying Similarities and Differences Generalizations from research on Identifying Similarities and Differences: • Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge • Having students independently identify similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge
Identifying Similarities and Differences • Representing similarities and differences in graphic and symbolic form further enhances students’ understanding of and ability to us knowledge. • Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways.
When students know what they are learning, their performance, on average, has been shown to be 27 percentile points higher than students who do not know what they are learning.
Learning Objectives When did he say this was due? The Objective is…
Today Read Chapter 2 in… Finish Adverb Assignment… Work on myth… As a result of what we do today, you will be able to demonstrate that you: Understand the technique of foreshadowing in mysteries. Can revise writing to improve use of descriptive adverbs. Activities/Assignments Learning Goals
Setting Objectives Generalizations from research on Setting Objectives (Goal Setting): • Instructional goals narrow student focus • Instructional goals should not be too specific • Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals.
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback When students know what they are learning, their performance, on average, has been shown to be 27 percentile points higher than students who do not know what they are learning. If, in addition, they are provided feedback and the opportunity to improve, the advantage can be as high as 37 percentile points.
Providing Feedback Generalizations from Research on Providing Feedback: • Feedback should be “corrective” in nature • Feedback should be timely • Feedback should be specific to a criterion • Students can effectively provide their own feedback
John Hattie—reviewed 7,827 studies on learning and instruction Conclusion… “The most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops’ of feedback.”
How do you provide feedback in a way that students: • Know what they are learning and how well they are progressing • Can explain what they need to do to get better RUBRICS
Rubrics • What is the focus of the criteria? • If criteria focus on the appearance of the product, the student will be more likely to attend to the appearance. • If criteria focus on thelevel of learning, the student will be more likely to attend to the level of learning.
Rubric – CLEAN REFRIGERATOR 4 – Entire refrigerator is sparkling and smells clean. All items are fresh, in proper containers (original or Tupperware, with lids), and organized into categories. 3 – Refrigerator is generally wiped clean. All items are relatively fresh in some type of container (some Tupperware lids are missing or don’t fit) and are sitting upright.
Rubric – CLEAN REFRIGERATOR 2 – Some of the shelves are wiped clean, although there are some crusty spots. There are some suspicious smells. Items are in containers but there appears to be some green stuff growing in some of the Tupperware. 1 – Items stick to the shelves when they are picked up. The smells linger long after the refrigerator door is closed. Several items need to be thrown out, Tupperware and all!
Homework and Practice Generalizations from Research on Homework: • The amount of homework assigned to students should be different from elementary to high school. • Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum. • The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated. • If homework is assigned, it should be commented on.
1. The amount of homework assigned to students should be different from elementary to middle school to high school. • Critical Question – What is the right amount of homework? • There is no clear answer, but a general rule can be: The Grade Level x 10 Minutes
2. Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum. “While it is certainly legitimate to inform parents of the homework assigned to their children, it does not seem advisable to have parents help their children with homework.” “Specifically, many studies show minimal and even negative effects when parents are asked to help students with homework.”
3. The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated. Appropriate purposes of homework: Skill and Processes Practice to increase accuracy, fluency, and, if appropriate, speed Information and Ideas Preparation for new learning or elaboration to increase understanding
Assignment Notebook Language Arts Assignment: Math Due: Science Learning Goal: As a result of doing this assignment, I should Social Know more about…? Studies Understand better…? Be more skilled at…?
4. If homework is assigned, comments should be made on it. Remember the power of FEEDBACK! Whole Class Small Group One-on-one Correct answers Sample answers Criteria to apply Oral Written
Classroom Practice in Assigning Homework • Establish and communicate homework policy • Design homework that clearly articulates the purpose and outcome. • Vary the approaches to providing feedback • Remember to employ feasible and meaningful procedures for providing feedback – this raises student accountability for completing the work!
Nonlinguistic Representations Generalizations from research on Nonlinguistic Representations: • A variety of activities produce Nonlinguistic representations. • Creating graphic representations • Making physical models • Drawing pictures and pictographs • Engaging in kinesthetic activities
Nonlinguistic Representation • Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on knowledge
Nonlinguistic Representation Example Gallon Guy
Using Nonlinguistic Representations • One idea for using Nonlinguistic representations to teach or review vocabulary: • Vocabulary Plays • Introduce (or review) vocabulary words • Make sure students understand the words (use sentences, picture support, etc.) • Divide the class into pairs; give each pair a vocabulary word • Pairs secretly figure out how to act out their word • Class comes back together. Each pair acts out their word as the rest of the class guesses.
Nonlinguistic Possibilities to your lessons STORY STRUCTURE TO CHARACTER STUDY-review to polish -Graphic organizers -Pictures -Webs of character traits
General 100 What are famous Georges?