1 / 17

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Analysis Tutorial

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Analysis Tutorial. This presentation is to be used ONLY as a template for DCF Analysis presentations. In no way should it reflect a finished work. Tutorial Objectives. Basic Underlying Principles Time Value of Money Present/Future Value Opportunity Cost

Télécharger la présentation

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Analysis Tutorial

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Analysis Tutorial This presentation is to be used ONLY as a template for DCF Analysis presentations. In no way should it reflect a finished work.

  2. Tutorial Objectives • Basic Underlying Principles • Time Value of Money • Present/Future Value • Opportunity Cost • What is a business worth? • What is Free Cash Flow? • Basics of DCF Analysis • Composition • Computation • Forecasting

  3. Present Value • Time Value of Money: A dollar today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow. • A dollar today can be invested to earn a rate of return or interest. • What is today’s dollar worth tomorrow (future value)? • What is tomorrow’s dollar worth today (present value)?

  4. Time Value: Example • You are given $5,000 and decide to invest it in the stock market for 10 years and expect an average annual rate of return of 10%. What is that $5,000 worth 10 years from now?

  5. What is a Business Worth? • A business is worth the present value of the expected future cash flows of the business. • A company's stock price is a reflection of the market's consensus expectation regarding the value of the equity in the business. Ex. Target Corp (TGT): $60 Share Price x 858.89 Shares Outstanding (mm) = $51,533 Market Capitalization or Market Value of Equity • Is the market always right?

  6. Capital Budgeting • The process of determining how a firm should allocate scarce resources to available long term investment opportunities • Decisions whether a company should undertake a given project • Goal: Increase (Maximize) shareholder wealth • One capital Budgeting tool is NPV

  7. Discount Rate • The interest rate at which you discount expected future cash flows to the present • Efficient Markets Hypothesis (EMH) • Finance theory which states that all stock market prices at any given time reflect the accurate present value of the future cash flows of a business • Assumes market as a whole has rational expectations and is always right • Uses Capital Assets Pricing Model (CAPM) to establish the theoretical 'cost' of equity

  8. Discount Rate • EMH uses Beta as a measure of risk by quantifying the stock's volatility (up and down movements) relative to the market. • Since the stock price reflects the PV of future cash flows, the more volatile the stock price, the more uncertain the future performance of the business. • This 'extra risk' is reflected in a higher Cost of Equity. (Risk/Return) Cost of Equity = Rf + B * (Mkt – Rf)

  9. Discount Rate • The Opportunity Cost of Money – • Also known as the Hurdle Rate • The expected rate of return available on alternative investment opportunities • Historically, the stock market has generated an average annual return of about 10%. • Weighted Actual Cost of Capital (WACC)

  10. Discounted Cash Flow Analysis • Same Concept as capital budgeting: Is a $60 per share ‘initial investment’ in Target Corp. worth the projected future cash flows of this business given a discount rate of 10%? • Instead of a CFO conducting Capital Budgeting analyses to evaluate the projected cash flows of projects for his/her company to invest in, we are a fund conducting DCF analyses to evaluate the projected cash flows of whole companies.

  11. Free Cash Flow – Equity • Net Income adjusted for all non-cash sources of revenue and expense, less capital expenditures • Ex. Subtract all revenue paid for on credit, and add all expenses paid for on credit • Add back depreciation – largest non-cash expense • The cash that is left for shareholders after debt-holders have been paid and necessary reinvestment has been made

  12. Free Cash Flow – Equity Net Income Add: Depreciation Less: Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) ------------------------------------ Free Cash Flow to Equity

  13. DCF Example Lemonade Stand Business Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Initial Cost (50,000) Operating Income 75,000 84,000 100,000 Taxes (34%) (25,500) (28,560) (34,000) Income $49,500 $55,440 $66,000 Plus: Depreciation 3,750 4,200 5,000 Minus: CapEx 4,500 5,040 6,000 Free Cash Flow ($50,000) $48,750 $54,600 $65,000 Discount Rate 10% Discounted Values ($50,000) $44,318 $45,123 $48,835 Present Value $88,277

  14. Terminal Cash Flow • Going Concern Assumption: The business will operate and generate cash flows indefinitely. • Zero Growth: CF / i • $48,835/0.10 = $488,350 • 5% Growth: CF*(1+g) / (i-g) • $48,835*(1.05)/(.05) = $1,025,535 • Liquidation: Sell off remaining assets in liquidation. • PV of Fixed Assets: $52,590/(1+10%)^3 =$39,511

  15. Forecasting Cash Flows • Historical performance is not important in terms of business value, but is important in terms of predicting future performance. • The trickiest part of business valuation • Things to consider when predicting the future: • Every projection should be backed by a rational argument • The strongest arguments will include both quantitative and qualitative support • Mean Reversion

  16. Forecasting Cash Flows • Historical Simple/Weighted Averages • Primarily used when there is no discernible trend, or current trend is not expected to continue

  17. Forecasting Cash Flows • Historical Trend Exrapolation

More Related