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“…the sustainable way to build …” PowerPoint Presentation
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“…the sustainable way to build …”

“…the sustainable way to build …”

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“…the sustainable way to build …”

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  1. ‘Code for Sustainable Development – Cracking the Code”Wednesday 14th March 07“Ecology”and the built environment Professor Dr Michael Benfield PhDUniversity of Wales Newport + Benfield ATTwww.benfieldatt.co.uk Prof.B@benfieldatt.co.uk 01291 437 050 “…the sustainable way to build …”

  2. Overview ‘Ecology’ – the 15 minute ‘Expert’ DefinitionBackground – Trees as a proxyImplications - Human EcologySustainability – Triple Bottom LineRegulating for Ecology – economic, social, environmental “…the sustainable way to build …”

  3. Definition of ‘Ecology’ • oekologie- coined 1866 by German biologist - Ernst Haeckel - Greek οικος (oikos, "household") + λόγος (logos, "study") - So, "ecology" = “the study of natures household” • Scientific study - distribution + abundance of living orgs + how their interactions with environment affect these • Organism’s environment = all physical abiotic factors • e.g. insolation (sunlight), climate, and geology • AND all other organisms sharing its habitat • Although "ecology" often used for environmentalism and “ecologic" or "ecological" often = env. friendly. Actually • = the complex interaction of everything on earth "The Earth has an abundance of everything, but our share in it is only what we really need.“Sir David Attenborough • Humankind = just 1 interacting organism “…the sustainable way to build …”

  4. Trees as a proxy for these interactions • Roots break up soil – diversity > bugs (plant eaters) > mammals • 100,000 tree species today – 8,000 threatened • Trees vital to world health - ecosystems - biodiversity - economics • Life on earth evolved in the oceans • Land plants 460m yrs ago – trees 370 m (fern) • Paved way for animals –  O2,  CO2 • Key forest functions - climate regulation - nutrient cycling + distribution - raw materials and resources - cleanse air + provide oxygen - water retention in soil - shield animals / plants from sun / elements - habitats & beauty “…the sustainable way to build …”

  5. Forests … • Dinosaurs  140 m yrs after trees appearedAll Earth's oxygen produced by plant photosynthesis(CO2 +H2O = glucose + O2) Only 1.6 acres of forests / person living (FAO 2000)15,000 forest plants /animals = foods, medicines, etc. (EIA) • 50-90% of terrestrial species. Tropical forests over 50% - 10-50 m species (EIA)Rainforests cover 2% Earth's surface / 6% land massTechnically, deforestation only when land totally converted to other use Costa Rica – birds nests leaves, roots, berries • Natural Tree anti-freeze chemicals = -400 F in some species.Each tree absorbs ave. 10 lbs pollutants p.a. from air inc 4 lbs ozone3 lbs particulates(Friends of Trees) • 3 trees planted around ave home can  aircon bills 50% Wind shield trees  heating bills 30%(EIA) American High Bush Cranberry “…the sustainable way to build …”

  6. Human Ecology • Relationships between human, natural, social and created environmentsHuman Ecology investigates human interactions with nature & environment • All flora & fauna interdependent to evolve, grow, become healthySome must die out to allow others to live and evolve- Dinosaurs –v- Forests -v- Humans • Since Ind. Rev.- exorbitant demand for land inhabited by trees.  Health & technology  unparalleled population growth Demands for Earth’s resources  exponentially • 1990 – 2000 lost  2% world's forest - 10 m ha – not recovered • Developing nations worst EXCEPT China - 1.2% p.a. forest area • "The whole sustainability world is thinking abouttradeoffs. What will humans give up to have something else and still keep the environmental goods and services we need?“ Emily Mathews, World Resources Institute, Washington DC • “Can we be smarter about development in the future?” • Healthy cities - to ensure ecological, economic + social sustainability need Tree canopy coverage 40% ave.Rural area goal = min 50% American Forests • Planting trees = cost-effective way to capitalize on healthy ecosystem services “…the sustainable way to build …”

  7. Ecological / Environmental Sustainability the triple bottom line • Triple Bottom Line sustainability - economic > growth? - social > education / communities - environmental > consumption • Interactions of all of these PLUS the natural world • why? how? equity? - for other humans - for flora and fauna - for GAIA herself • Gaia hypothesis – controversial ecological theory Named after the Greek earth Goddess(Prof. James Lovelock) • Proposes that:- - living and nonliving parts of the earth are a complex interacting system - thought of as a single organism - promotes life overall - all living things have a regulatory effect on the Earth's environment Global EcoVillage network “…the sustainable way to build …”

  8. Regulating for EcologyEconomic Sustainability • Whose economy? - local? (centre decline, compact city) - regional? (megalopolis/city regions) - national? (N. S. E. W. divide? - international?(economic migration) • Whose generation? - present? • - children / grandchildren? • - 7 generations? • What economic activities? • - manufacturing? • - service? • - agriculture, forestry, fishing? • - construction? • - research? • - tourism? “…the sustainable way to build …”

  9. Regulating for EcologySocial Sustainability • Whose society? - local? - regional? - national? - international? - children / grandchildren? • Which generation? - present? • - 7 generations? • What culture? • - education? • - employment level? • - leisure & sport? • - retirement? “…the sustainable way to build …”

  10. Regulating for EcologyEnvironmental Sustainability? • Carbon Dioxide- energy – embodied, in use, maintenance, decommissioning, demolition, removal - energy – provision, efficiency, reliability, cost - recycling – selection, disassembly, reuse - manufacture – methods, handle-ability, transportation • Renewable – can you harvest it? • Site selection – location, transport, mobility, facilities, • - amenities, • - impacts • Design - architectural – practical and aesthetics • - planning – linkages, orientation, surroundings • - engineering • - structural • - waste – off-site and on-site • - project management • – site layouts, provisions, logistics, etc. “…the sustainable way to build …”

  11. Summary & Conclusions • Ecology = complex interaction of everything>> humans as only 1 organism • Trees as Proxy for interactions = Evolution, CO2, O2 >> climate change • Vital Importance of Forests >> habitats, atmosphere >> home benefits • Human Ecology >> population growth, resources, ‘tradeoffs’, die off ? >> Healthy Cities Tree Cover Trees needed for healthy ecosystems • Triple Bottom Line = Economy, Society, Environment >>who, what, when • Regulating for Ecology >> economic sustainability >>human settlements & migration>> social sustainability >> whose society? which generation? what culture?>> environmental sustainability >> energy, renewables, site selection, design -v- “…the sustainable way to build …”

  12. Finally, if you really want to “Crack the Code”you need to ask yourself a final, thought provoking question How Green is Your Organisation? “…the sustainable way to build …”