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Polusi akibat tumpahan minyak di laut

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Polusi akibat tumpahan minyak di laut

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  1. Polusi akibat tumpahan minyak di laut www.life.illinois.edu

  2. Exxon Valdez • March 24, 1989 • 10.8 gallons (1 gallon sekitar 3,7 liter) • 1100 miles of Alaskan coast • Valdez was carrying 53 million gallons • Impact on environment

  3. Nowruz Oil Field Spill • February 10- Semptember 18 1983 • Persian Gulf, Iran • 80 million gallons

  4. Kolva River • September 8, 1994 • Kolva River, Russia • Pipeline • 84 million gallons

  5. Atlantic Empress • July 19, 1979 • Off of Trinidad and Tobago • 90 million gallons

  6. Ixtoc 1 • June 3, 1979- March 23, 1980 • Bay of Campeche, Mexico • 140 million gallons

  7. 1st Gulf War • January 19, 1991 • Persian Gulf, Kuwait • 380-520 million gallons

  8. Deep Water Horizon • April 20 – July 15, 2010 • Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana • 205.8 million gallons • Effectively dead September 19, 2010

  9. Dead Zone http://ecowatch.ncddc.noaa.gov/hypoxia/products

  10. Dead Zone http://ecowatch.ncddc.noaa.gov/hypoxia/products

  11. Dead Zone http://ecowatch.ncddc.noaa.gov/hypoxia/products

  12. Dead Zone http://ecowatch.ncddc.noaa.gov/hypoxia/products

  13. Dead Zone http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/ http://www.mygeoinfo.com/2010/05/13/map-of-location-of-the-bp-oil-spill-and-deepwater-horizon/

  14. Dead Zone • Found worldwide, Gulf’s is one of the largest • Hypoxic conditions occur because of runoff from farms in waters of the Mississippi-- promotes algal growth • Leads to depletion of dissolved oxygen in water(kekurangan oksigen dalam air) • Linked to fish kills in Gulf http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/

  15. If Containment Fails…. • Formation of the Gulf Stream • Entrance: Yucatan Strait • Produces ‘Loop Current’ • Exits: Florida Strait forming the Gulf Stream • With the Gulf: Loop generates eddies

  16. Containment Failure: the Global Scale • “Conveyor Belt” • Oil possibly limiting Gulf from receiving hot water from E. currents • Lowers ability to warm N. hemisphere • Eventually stop all currents???

  17. Thus far…. • Zone temperature changes • Domino effect of continental climate change

  18. Tumpahan minyak akan memperburuk kualitas air dan kehidupan biota

  19. Water quality: Dissolved Oxygen • Low dissolved oxygen (DO2) levels have been detected in contaminated areas • DO2 depression have been observed more than 80 km from the well head • DO2 depression likely due to increased biochemical oxygen demand to metabolize oil hydrocarbons • DO2 levels have not approached hypoxic levels • DO2 depression does not seem to be worsening due to mixing of high and low DO2 waters

  20. Water quality: Chemical levels • Above normal oil and chemical levels have been observed in waters and sediments many miles from well head • No samples exceeded the EPA’s human health or dispersants benchmarks • About 1% of samples exceeded aquatic life benchmark

  21. Effects on Wildlife

  22. Effects on Wildlife: Birds • Seabirds can dive into oil slicks thinking they are calm water • Oil makes birds unable to regulate body temperature • Leads to hyperthermia

  23. Marine Mammals • Whales and dolphins can come up to breath in oil slicks • Can cause respiratory problems or suffocation • Dolphins have been known to follow clean up ships into slicks

  24. Fish/Crustaceans/Mollusks • Adult fish, shrimp, crabs, and oysters metabolize oil hydrocarbons (at different rates) • Real threat is to shore line nursery areas • Contamination can lead to death of future generations

  25. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/04/28/us/20100428-spill-map.htmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/04/28/us/20100428-spill-map.html

  26. Food Concerns • Many people are suspicious of seafood from the Gulf • Tests show there is little hazard from oil in seafood • Animals metabolize hydrocarbons and remove them from their systems

  27. Hesco unitsSeven hours to build1500 sandbag equivalent

  28. Absorbent & Containment Booms

  29. Oil Skimming boatsdon’t pick up 100% oilcan harm environment themselves • http://news.discovery.com/tech/how-do-oil-skimmers-work.html • http://earthquakes-today.info/2010/08/oil-spill-clean-up-methods-saving-gulf-coast-beaches/ • http://www.nola.com/news/gulf-oil-spill/index.ssf/2010/07/giant_oil_skimmer_a_whale_deem.html

  30. Membersihkan minyak dengan Cara fisik (minyak langsung diambil) Cara kimia (dispersant) Cara biologi (mengaktifkan bakteri pemakan minyak)

  31. Membersihkan minyak dengan OIL DISPERSANTS

  32. Dispersant Use • Breaks up oil before it reaches the beaches and marshes on land • 1.8 million gallons were used on the surface and at source of oil leakage – more than has ever been used by the US before • Dispersing the oil causes many marine animals to be subject to oil that would not have been without using dispersants, which have unknown effects

  33. How Dispersant Works • Sprayed on surface of water, breaks oil down into tiny suspended droplets, over time broken down by oil-eating bacteria, sunlight, and wave action and dispersed throughout the ocean or sinks to the bottom • Toxic to marine animals that live/spawn/reproduce there, trades one ecosystem for another

  34. Dispersant: campuran solvent (pelarut), surfactant dan senyawa tambahan lain): Melarutkan minyak dalam air, gelombang membantu memisahkan senyawa2 minyak, senyawa2 minyak terpisah (memudahkan bakteri memakannya)

  35. Dispersal of Dispersants • Most sprayed from airplanes, however in this specific instance was injected at the well’s leaking riser a mile below the surface, effects of which had previously never been tested • No idea how oil, dispersants, and bacteria will react under such high pressure, low temps and O2, and no light • If oil not degraded by bacteria, could linger for decades on bottom of ocean floor or carried to deep sea coral reefs

  36. Estimated Cost of Cleanup • Former BP CEO Tony Hayward initially stated that BP would take full economic responsibility for all of those affected. • On June 16, after meeting with President Obama, BP executives agreed to create a $20 billion spill response fund • Attorney Kenneth Feinberg is in charge of this escrow account. • By November, BP said it had sent $1.7 billion in checks. • Estimates state that about $6 billion of the fund will be paid out in claims, including government aims and cleanup costs. Feinberg plans to return the remaining $14 billion to BP once all the settlements are paid out by August 2013.[

  37. Companies Negatively Impacted • Fishing in Louisiana alone supplies roughly 40% of US seafood. • Approximately 36% of Gulf federal waters were closed off during the clean-up processes. • The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is estimated to cost the industry $2.4 billion. • Tourism in Florida is another industry that has been largely affected. • The region’s tourism industry is expected to be impacted for an additional 2.5 years and suffer a total loss of $22.7 billion.

  38. Companies Positively Impacted • Clean Harbors, a company dedicated to coastal restoration, was employed to help in clean-up efforts. • They saw an increase in market shares of at least 12%. • Nalco Holdings has benefited greatly from the oil spill. • Production of Corexit has caused shares to increase dramatically, even as much as 6% in one day.

  39. Price Jumps/Supply and Demand • There are 195 seafood processors across the Gulf Coast employing more than 9,000 workers and generating more than $1 billion in revenue a year. • Seafood supply is down because fishermen who normally bring in the crabs, shrimp and fish have been employed with BP cleaning up the spill or have not been able to return to their fisheries because of the oil.

  40. Price Jumps/Supply and Demand • At the same time, demand is down because their longtime customers, such as restaurants and grocery chains, have turned to other sources or are skittish to buy Gulf seafood. • This is a classic supply chain problem that is caused by tainted resources and a tainted reputation of where the product is coming from. • http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/environment/2010-10-08-oilspill08_ST_N.htm