Measuring the impact of education on national economic competitiveness Jens Johansen 21 October 2009, Yerevan
The links between education and competitiveness are complex • Exactly what is it in education that makes it worthwhile – in terms of creating more competitiveness? • Is it the amount of education? At an individual and at a macro level? The quality? The manner of teaching? Is it the changes in the mindset of participants which education gives rise to that create competitiveness? Is it what you teach? Is it a question of how many students complete education?
The WEF uses simple measurements of education & training to cover many countries • Extent of formal education (hard data) • Cost of formal education (hard data) • Quality of education (survey) • Training on-the-job (survey) • Facilities, i.e. internet access (survey)
Today’s workshop: • We will demonstrate the effect of the current indicators • How much can a country improve its competitiveness through education reforms? • We will discuss how much your country can improve its competitiveness ranking through detailed simulations
Simulating the impact of education • Calculations and simulations have been carried out to measure the impact of education on the overall level of competitiveness. • Simulations include effects of changing the results of one or more indicators vs. the results of all the indicators. • Preliminary choices: • Year of reference of GCI data: 2007-2008 • Reference indicators
Which WEF indicators cover education and training in human capital? • Pillar 4: Quality of primary education, Primary enrolment, Education expenditure • Pillar 5: Secondary enrolment, Tertiary enrolment, Quality of the educational system, Quality of science and mathematics education, Quality of management schools, Internet access in schools, Local availability of research and training services, Extent of staff training • Pillar 12: Capacity for innovation, Quality of research institutions, Company spending on research and development,University-industry research collaboration, Availability of researchers and engineers, Utility patents. • + Brain-drain (pillar 7)
Effect of the E&T indicators: Some results • Three stages of analysis; 1- Number of E&T and Innovation indicators in GCI 2007-2008: 18/113 = 15.9% of total 2- Weight of these indicators on the overall GCI 2007-2008:
Effect of the E&T indicators: Some results, cont. 3- Simulations: What would be the effect on the total competitiveness score for a country that became equal to the best (or worst) performer in E&T and Innovation indicators?
Tool for improving national economic competitiveness • Possibility of analysing the potential of a given country’s competitiveness if it improved its performance on the E&T & Innovation variables • Possibility of exploring time series, combined with educational reforms data. • And we can assess which kind of E&T or innovation reforms that will have the biggest impact on competitiveness…