ap world history pod 12 ottoman safavid empires n.
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AP World History POD #12 – Ottoman & Safavid Empires PowerPoint Presentation
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AP World History POD #12 – Ottoman & Safavid Empires

AP World History POD #12 – Ottoman & Safavid Empires

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AP World History POD #12 – Ottoman & Safavid Empires

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  1. AP World HistoryPOD #12 – Ottoman & Safavid Empires Safavid Empire

  2. Class Discussion Notes Bulliet et. al. – “The Safavid Empire, 1502-1722” , pp. 541-545

  3. Safavid Empire • “The Safavid Empire of Iran resembled its long time Ottoman foe in many ways: It initially relied militarily on cavalry paid through land grants; its population spoke several different languages; and it was oriented inward away from the sea. It also had distinct qualities that to this day set Iran off from its neighbors: it derived part of its legitimacy from the pre-Islamic dynasties of ancient Iran, and adopted the Shi’ite form of Islam” (Bulliet, p. 541)

  4. Ismail • Ismail was the ultimate victor in the region during and intense and complicated power struggle • He was a boy of Kurdish, Iranian and Greek ancestry who proclaimed himself Shah at the age of 16 • Declared allegiance to Shi’ite Islam, which revered the family of Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali • This decision created a deep divide between Iran and its Sunni neighbors • The actions of Ismail turned Iran into a separate country for the first time since the Islamic caliphate in the 7th century

  5. Persian Culture • Differences between Iran and its neighbors were long in the making • Persian – written in Arabic script from the 10th century emerged as a second Islamic language • Iranian scholars and writers normally read Arabic, as well as Persian, and used Arabic phrases in their writing • The Arabs were less inclined to learn Persian • Iran became known for painted and molded mosaic tiles and carpet design and production

  6. Iranian Isolation & Interaction • After the Mongols destroyed Baghdad, the capital of the Islamic caliphate, in 1258, Iran developed largely on its own, having more extensive contacts with India – where Muslim rulers favored the Persian language – than with the Arabs.

  7. Hidden Imam • Shi’ite doctrine taught that all worldly rulers, regardless of title, are temporary stand ins for the “Hidden Imam” • The Hidden Imam was said to be the 12th descendent of Ali, the prophet Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, who disappeared as a child in the 9th century • Some believed the faithful should calmly and quietly accept the world as it was and wait for the return of the Hidden Imam • Some claimed they should have a greater leadership role in political affairs because they were best qualified to fulfill the wishes of the Hidden Imam • As a result of this idea, religious scholars played a prominent role in Iranian society (and still do today) and they have never become subordinate to the secular government

  8. Military Crisis • The Safavids, much like the Ottomans found it difficult to pay and supply troops armed with firearms • Cannons were needed in greater supply by the late 16th century to hold off the Ottoman and Uzbeks enemies • Like the Ottoman cavalry the Safavid warriors were not willing to exchange their traditional bow and arrow for modern weaponry • Shah Abbas was forced to create an army of slaves armed with guns able to fight year round – this army was initially made up of Christian converts to Islam who were taken during raids on Georgia in the Caucasus

  9. Economic Crisis • Inflation caused by the influx of cheap silver • Overland trade through the empire declined due to mismanagement of the silk monopoly after the death of Shah Abbas in 1629 • There was no money left to pay for the military, as well as, the government bureaucracy • The government was unable to remove the nomads from their lands as a means to regain control of the taxes • 1722 – the government was so weak and ineffective that it was overrun by an army of Afghans who were able to capture Isfahan and end Safavid rule