World War OneWartime Industry in Scotland Lesson starter: What are the five biggest industries in the UK? (sectors which employ most people)
We are learning to… Describe the wartime economy Explain why industry declined after the war I can… Identify key wartime industries & explain what they were used for Answer a N5 question on the decline of industry
Scotland’s key Industries 1914answers – copy down • Shipbuilding • Wool • Textiles • Farming • Steel • Coal • Iron • Fishing
Memo from Lord KitchenerGoods required for the war effort 5 August 1914 Tanks Shells Soldier’s uniforms Sandbags Artillery Food for British people Bullets Warships Soldier’s blankets Water cans and bowls Submarines Food for soldier’s rations Which industry would be required to produce each item?
Summary • WWI was good for Scotland’s industries as the traditional ‘heavy’ industries produced vital goods for the war effort. • An example was that the Dundee Jute industry, producing 6 million sandbags per month. • Scottish people enjoyed full employment and overtime working as the wartime boom continued. • The only industry to suffer was fishing, as the North Sea was completely closed due to the threat of a German naval attackand floating mines.
Post War Decline 1918 – 1920s What happened when the war ended in November 1918? All of the traditional heavy industries went into decline.
Causes/ Effects of Postwar Decline Causes • The wartime goods like warships & steel for tanks were no longer in demand when the war ended (1 example = 1 mark) • Britain could import again e.g. grain was cheaper from USA & Canada • Scotland could no longer compete with countries like India (Calcutta)for cheap textiles • Foreign markets were lost during the war i.e. Germany & Russia • The fishing boats & machinery used in the war needed replaced and industry could not afford to do so Effects • Scotland’s key industries went into decline, meaning their future looked bleak • Many industries such as shipbuilding laid off workers or put workers on part-time hours or wages cut • The decline of one industry had a knock-on effect on others i.e. as shipyards closed, less steel was required • Unemployment rose – by 1919 it was 10% which was considerably higher than England’s. • Many Scots emigrated to England, Canada & Australia/ New Zealand to try and get away from the economic misery of Scotland
N5 Question - 2014 Explain the reasons for the decline of heavy industry after World War One. 6 marks. One heavy industry which declined after the war was … and it went into decline because… x 6
Model Answer One reason was that after the war ended in 1918, there was no longer a great demand for warships and submarines and this meant that the shipbuilding industry went into decline. Another reason was that the shipbuilding industry relied on the coal, steel and iron industries to run and when the order for ships dried up, shipyard no longer needed the raw materials which meant that coal, steel & iron went into decline. Another reason was that the sandbags used in the trenches were no longer required when the war ended and this caused the Jute industry in Dundee to go into decline. Another reason was that after the war, Britain was able to import cheaper food again, such as wheat, from the USA & Canada and this mean that the Scottish farming industry went into decline. Another reason was that a lot of the machinery in the textile industries & fishing boats used to locate floating mines had been damaged and was not replaced and this caused textiles & fishing to go into decline.