Civil War 1861-1865 Chapter 14
Lincoln has taken over a divided nation • Those in the S. feel threatened by his free-soil stance • Following the lead of S.C. in Dec 1860, the Confederate States of America is created • Buchanan is pro states-rights, and doesn’t take action against S.C. or actions taken at Ft. Sumter
Lincoln planned to support slavery where it existed • Would use military force if necessary to preserve the Union • Unarmed supply ship sent to Ft. Sumter, and was fired upon • Lincoln used military to seize power and influence • Also take key railway lines and trade routes
South • Pres. Jefferson Davis • Gen. Robert E. Lee • North • Pres. Abraham Lincoln • Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
Outside resources Biography - Civil War - Focuses on military history of the war itself Crash Course #20 - Civil War Part 1
War Objectives - South • “ I worked night and day for twelve years to prevent the war, but I could not. The North was mad and blind, would not let us govern ourselves, and so the war came.” - Jefferson Davis • From the onset it would be mostly defensive for The South as their goal was to maintain their border as it had been • How does the political cartoon reflect the South’s sentiments about the federal government?
Battle of Bull Run (Manassas Creek) • Union army under McDowell surprised at rebel tenacity • Lincoln responds w/ more men and replaces McDowell with McClellan • Faced w/ strong attack by Stonewall Jackson in Shenandoah Valley, Lincoln attacked Richmond (CSA capitol) • When McClellan didn’t exploit strength, Lincoln withdrew
Antietam Creek, MD - Sept 1862 • Lee tries to push N. into Union army (so much for defense only) • Divides force to capture Harpers Ferry → McClellan again doesn’t take advantage of knowledge of plans • Allowing CSA troops to dig in, both sides lost HUGE amounts of troops • Bloodiest day of the war • McClellan replaced with Burnside, then “Fighting Joe” Hooker • Confederacy calls stalemate in the East a victory
Confederate States of America - Initial Advantages • Desire • Possibility of foreign allies • Northern opposition to the war • Which of these factors was most important?
United States of America - Initial Advantages • Established government and military • More people, $, resources, infrastructure • Industrialized economy vs. CSA reliance on slavery
Anaconda Plan • Naval Blockade of the coast • Including the port city of New Orleans - captured slaves and a major shipping center, cutting of CSA lifeblood • Control the Mississippi River • Divide the South • Capture the CSA capital city of Richmond, VA • Supposed to take 4 months, not 4 years
Conscription - In the South • South was the first to use it in 1862 following Shiloh and lowering the age following Antietam • 2 loopholes • 1) one white man was exempt for each of the 20 slaves • 2) Substitutes could be hired • “Rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight” • Some in the S. refused to serve, including at the state level • Habeas corpus - cannot be charged with arrest for dodging • Worked until S. Congress overrode judge
Conscription - In the North • Lincoln used the powers of the federal government to ensure draft worked • Militia Act of 1862 → local quotas, cash bounties • Enrollment Act of 1863 → forced conscription in the North • Northern Democrats used it to rally ppl against the Republican party • Many immigrants refused to fight - why fight to free people who may take their jobs? • July 1863 NYC riots - immigrants attacked draft offices and African Americans • Quelled using Union troops • Native-born middle-class was more supportive in the North - why was this?
WOMEN!! • Dorothea Dix helped open the nursing industry to women • Helped on the battlefields and at home, raising funds, supplies, and filling working-class jobs • Much more of a ‘total war’ in the North than the South
Economic impacts • Republicans elevated Clay’s American System • 40% tariffs on foreign goods • Federal charters of regulations of banks • Financed transportation system • Homestead Act 1863 - after 5 years you get the deed to up to 160 acres • Rise of industries to support the war effort • Further connecting the Midwest to the East • In the South, states rights won over federal oversight (initially) • CSA had to pay for war efforts by printing $$ - did not hold the value of greenbacks in the North
Summary Write a 2-3 sentence summary of today’s lecture in your notes